The report will be published in the archival literature by Springer (Boston, Berlin) in 2010 under the title:
Nanotechnology Research Directions for Societal Needs in 2020, Springer, Boston and Berlin, 2010
Introduction to the
The creation of the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) in the
United States in 2000 catalyzed a vast, world-wide increase in research
and development on nanoscience and nanotechnology. Other nations soon
created focused funding initiatives to cooperate and compete with the
United States. The impacts of the resulting increased research and
development in nanoscience and nanotechnology (here called
“nano R&D”) are seen daily in reports of
discoveries and innovations that will improve the lives of people all
over the world. Because of the huge volume of such results, what is
less obvious is the impact of the increase in U.S. nano R&D on
the structure of science, engineering, and education itself. Indeed,
the resulting excitement has benefited the global science, engineering
enterprise generally, and particularly science and engineering
international brainstorming meetings were held:
(for US), March 9-10, 2010
- Hamburg (for
EU), June 23-24, 2010
- Tokyo (for
Japan, Korea and Taiwan), July 26-27, 2010
- Singapore (for
China, India, Singapore, Australia, ...), July 29-30, 2010
- Final workshop at
September 30, 2010.
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to view the webcast, access the website and provide your e-mail address
Registration and Coffe
8:30 Welcome, Tom Peterson, NSF
8:40 Overview of the
Study, Mark Hersam, Northwestern U.
8:50 Long View of Nanotechnology Development, Mihail Roco, NSF
9:10 Scientific, Engineering, and
Societal Challenges for Nanotechnology, Chad Mirkin,
Enabling and Investigative Tools: Theory, Modeling, and Simulation
Lundstrom, Purdue U.
Enabling and Investigative Tools: Measuring Methods, Instruments, and
Bonnell, U. Pennsylvania
Synthesis, Processing, and Manufacturing of Nanoscale Components,
Devices, and Systems,
Mark Tuominen, University of Massachusetts Amherst (and Chad
Mirkin, Northwestern U.)
Nanotechnology Environmental, Health, and Safety Issues,
Nel, University of California Los Angeles
for Sustainability: Environment, Water, Food, and Climate,
Diallo, California Institute of Technology (and Jeff Brinker, SNL and
Nanotechnology for Sustainability: Energy Conversion, Storage, and
Brinker, SNL and UNM (and Jim Murday, U. South Carolina) (slides
(own for general audience)
conference (Room 110); lunch afterwards for panelists and reporters
Applications: Nanobiosystems, Medicine, and Health,
Mirkin, Northwestern U. (and Andre Nel, UCLA)
Applications: Nanoelectronics and Nanomagnetics,
Welser, IBM and Nanoelectronics Research Initiative (and Stuart Wolf,
Applications: Photonics and Plasmonics,
Hu, Harvard U. (and Stuart Wolf, U. Virginia; Jeff Welser, IBM and NRI)
Hu, Harvard U.
High-performance Nanomaterials and Other Emerging Areas,
Hersam, Northwestern U.
of People and Physical Infrastructure,
Murday, U. of Southern California (and Mark Hersam, Northwestern U.)
and Responsible Governance,
3:20 Overarching Conclusions
3:30 General Questions and
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There is a voluminous literature on the focused investment in nanoscale
science, engineering, and technology; only a few key publications will
be cited here.
WTEC helped provide the
international R&D data for the NNI proposal (Siegel, Hu, and
It also helped gather
ideas for a U.S. research agenda through a workshop and report (Roco,
Williams, and Alivisatos 2000).
Through facilitation of
books, WTEC helped Federal agencies consider possible impacts on
society (Roco and Bainbridge 2001) and on other fields of science and
technology (Roco and Bainbridge 2003). WTEC
has also edited and produced a series of workshop reports on
After ten years of such progress, it is now time to gather and analyze
the major effects of this focused nanotechnology research, not just in
making major discoveries and innovations possible, but to gauge its
impacts in altering the ways that science, engineering and their
education are done.
Since these have
clearly been worldwide, it is not sufficient to restrict the
examination to the United States alone. While
PCAST and the National Academies conduct periodic assessments of the
structure and performance of the NNI, their scope is limited to the
initiative itself, primarily only within the United States, with some
attention to the position of United States in nanotechnology
vis-à-vis competing nations. This study, on the other hand
will address broader issues of the beneficial effects of focused U.S.
nanotechnology R&D around the world on science, engineering,
With information on
these broader impacts, U.S. policymakers may better plan for the
evolution of nanoscale science and technology in directions that
provide greater benefit to the science, engineering, and education
system of the United States, plus the public as a whole.
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After a study of the literature already available on broader impacts,
the study will use WTEC's methodology of a peer review panel to conduct
visits to overseas sites to gather international information on the
impacts of nanotechnology R&D in the United States and abroad. This
effort will be combined with the panel's own knowledge of the U.S. and
international scene. The deliverables will include briefings to
sponsors, a public workshop, and a final report. Collectively they will
provide a comprehensive set of evaluations of developments overseas
with comparisons to activities in the United States, including
benchmarking of U.S. progress in nanoscale science and engineering
R&D, both in basic research and in translation to applications
control the scope, the study is focusing on only 6-7 major technical
areas (see list below). The
study scope also includes emphasis on identifying engines of change in
nanotechnology, such as sensing and manipulation tools, new ideas, and
will be other benefits for policy development. While
the study will focus primarily on assessing the technical topics listed
below, it may also (to a limited extent) address some other key issues
of importance to decision-makers, including:
a strategic level--how has the vision of nanotechnology changed in the
last ten years?
What is the state
of the art now vs. ten years ago? Where
is the field likely to go next?
have the technological impacts changed in this period?
example Table ES1 in the 1999 report lists GMR read heads as a present
impact and forecasts terabit memory and microprocessing as a future
impacts have been realized and how should this table be updated?
is the impact of increased U.S. nanotechnology R&D on foreign
conduct of nanotechnology R&D?
are the most important scientific discoveries and engineering
innovations worldwide that can be attributed to U.S. nanotechnology
R&D vs. nanotechnology R&D abroad?
have been the major impacts of U.S. and foreign nanotechnology
R&D on the structure of science and engineering in the United
States and abroad?
These includes new
R&D organizations in nanoscale science and technology and the
encouragement of interdisciplinary R&D.
have been the major impacts of focused nanotechnology R&D on
education for science and engineering in the United States and abroad? These
include academic degree programs, educational labs and centers,
education of the public, attraction of new students into careers in
science and engineering, etc.
is the interface between nanotechnology R&D worldwide and
society as a whole?
lessons can be learned to guide future focused R&D funding
efforts to maximize their impacts?
are the major emerging ideas in nanoscale science and technology
programs abroad that are worth exploring in the United States?
are the opportunities for further international collaboration to
combine complementary resources and strengths? What are the most
appropriate international mechanisms for cooperation: OECD, ISO, INC,
IRGC, ICON, bilateral agreements, et al.
are the appropriate metrics for comparing U.S. and international
How does the United
States rate compared to its international competitors using those
metrics? This topic could include both (1) R&D and (2)
practical applications, commercialization, and economic impacts.
are other nations doing in transitioning basic research advances in the
field into practical applications? Are
there models for technology commercialization abroad that ought to be
considered in the United States?
related issues of interest to the sponsors
bottom line of the study findings will be “What has the
United States gained from its investment in focused nanoscience and
nanotechnology R&D over the last ten years?”
is, the report will help document accomplishments demonstrating that
the investment has been worthwhile.
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National Nanotechnology Initiative:
Second Assessment and Recommendations of the National Nanotechnology
Advisory Panel. Executive Office
of the President, April 2008.
Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the
National Nanotechnology Initiative, National
Academies Press, 2006.
MC, RS Williams, and P. Alivisatos
Workshop Report: Nanotechnology Research Directions.
MC and WS Bainbridge (2001), Societal
Implications of Nanoscience and
MC and WS Bainbridge (2003), Converging
Technologies for Improving Human
Performance. Kluwer, 2003.
RW, E Hu, and MC Roco (1999), WTEC
Panel Report on Nanostructure Science
and Technology, Kluwer, 1999.
For Further Information:
Duane Shelton, WTEC, email@example.com, 717-299-7130
Geoff Holdridge, WTEC, firstname.lastname@example.org,
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C. Roco, Ph.D.
, Senior Adviser for
Nanotechnology, National Science Foundation.
Roco is the founding chair of
the National Science and Technology Council's subcommittee on Nanoscale
Science, Engineering and Technology (NSET), and is the Senior Advisor
for Nanotechnology at the National Science Foundation. He also
coordinated the programs on academic liaison with industry (GOALI).
Prior to joining National Science Foundation, he was Professor of
Mechanical Engineering at the University of Kentucky (1981-1995), and
held visiting professorships at the California Institute of Technology
(1988-89), Johns Hopkins University (1993-1995), Tohoku University
(1989), and Delft University of Technology (1997-98).
Dr. Roco is credited with thirteen
inventions, contributed over two hundred articles and sixteen books
including "Particulate Two-phase Flow" (Butterworth, 1993),
"Nanostructure Science and Technology" (1999), “Societal
Implications of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology” (2001 and
2006), and more recently “Managing Nano-Bio-Info-Cognition
Innovations” (2007) and “Mapping Nanotechnology
Knowledge and Innovation: Global and Longitudinal Patent and Literature
Analysis” (2008). Dr. Roco was a researcher in multiphase
systems, visualization techniques, computer simulations, nanoparticles
and nanosystems. He initiated the first Federal Government program with
focus on nanoscale science and engineering (on Synthesis and Processing
of Nanoparticles) at NSF in 1991. He formally proposed NNI in a
presentation at White House/OSTP, Committee on Technology, on March 11,
1999. He is a key architect of the National Nanotechnology Initiative,
and coordinated the preparation of the U.S. National Science and
Technology Council reports on "Nanotechnology Research Directions"
(NSTC, 1999) and "National Nanotechnology Initiative" (NSTC, 2000).
Dr. Roco is a Correspondent Member of
the Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences, a Fellow of the American
Society of Mechanical Engineers, a Fellow of the Institute of Physics,
and a Fellow of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. He has
been co-founder and Chair of the AIChE Particle Technology Forum and of
the International Multiphase Flow Council. He has served as editor for
Journal of Fluids Engineering and Journal of Measurement Science and
Technology, and is Editor-in-chief of the Journal of Nanoparticle
Research. He has been member in the several research boards in
Americas, Europe and Asia including the S&T Council of the
International Risk Governance Council in Geneva.
He was honored as recipient of the Carl
Duisberg Award in Germany, “Burgers Professorship
Award” in Netherlands and the “University Research
Professorship” award in U.S. He was named the
“Engineer of the Year” in 1999 and again in 2004 by
the U.S. National Society of Professional Engineers and NSF. In 2002,
he received the “Best of Small Tech Awards”
(“Leader of the American nanotech revolution”).
Forbes magazine recognized him in 2003 as the first among
“Nanotechnology’s Power Brokers” and
Scientific American named him one of 2004’s top 50 Technology
Leaders. Dr. Roco is the 2005 recipient of the AIChE Forum Award "for
leadership and service to the national science and engineering
community through initiating and bringing to fruition the National
Nanotechnology Initiative." He received the National Materials
Advancement Award from the Federation of Materials Societies at the
National Press Club in 2007 for NNI leadership and “as the
individual most responsible for support and investment in
nanotechnology by government, industry, and academia
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Mirkin, Ph.D, (Co-chair),
research focuses on developing methods for controlling the architecture
of molecules and materials on the 1-100 nm length scale, and utilizing
such structures in the development of analytical tools that can be used
in the areas of chemical and biological sensing, lithography,
catalysis, and optics. Mirkin has pioneered the use of biomolecules as
synthons in materials science and the development of nanoparticle-based
biodiagnostics. Many of the concepts and materials developed within his
laboratories are now the basis for commercial detection and lithography
Mirkin received his undergraduate
training at Dickinson College (B.S., 1986) and his graduate training at
the Pennsylvania State University where he completed his Ph.D. in
chemistry in 1989. That same year he moved to the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology as a National Science Foundation Postdoctoral
Fellow. Mirkin joined the faculty at Northwestern University in 1991 as
an Assistant Professor in Chemistry. In 1997 he was named Charles E.
and Emma H. Morrison Professor of Chemistry. His current positions are
the George B. Rathmann Professor of Chemistry, Professor of Materials
Science and Engineering, Professor of Medicine, and Director of the NU
International Institute for Nanotechnology (IIN).
Mirkin has won numerous
awards for his research in these areas, including: the NIH
Director’s Pioneer Award, the Collegiate Inventors Award from
the National Inventors Hall of Fame (2003, 2004), the ACS Nobel
Signature Award, the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Prize in the Physical
Sciences, the Feynman Prize, the Leo Hendrik Baekeland Award,
Crain’s Chicago 40 under 40 Award, the ACS Award in Pure
Chemistry, the Discover 2000 Innovation of the Year Award, the
Materials Research Society’s Outstanding Young Investigator
Award, the E. Bright Wilson Prize, the Phi Lambda Upsilon Fresenius
Award, a Beckman Young Investigator Award, a NSF Young Investigator
Award, an A. P. Sloan Foundation Fellowship, an ONR Young Investigator
Award, a DuPont New Professor Award, and a Camille Dreyfus
Teacher-Scholar Award. Recently, he was elected as a fellow of the
AAAS. In 1997, he was corecipient of a prestigious BF Goodrich
Collegiate Inventors Award for one of the three most outstanding
collegiate inventions in all of medicine, science, and engineering. He
holds an honorary doctorate from Dickinson College, and was elected to
the school’s Board of Trustees in 2005. Professor Mirkin is
the author or coauthor of over 280 publications and 313 patents (55
issued). He serves on the editorial advisory board of 19 scholarly
journals, and is an active consultant with several major chemical
companies. In addition, he is a founder of two companies, Nanosphere
and NanoInk, and cofounder of the journal, Small.
Hersam, Ph.D, (Co-chair),
is currently a Professor of Materials Science and Engineering
at Northwestern University and cofounder of NanoIntegris. His research
interests include single molecule devices, nanofabrication, scanning
probe microscopy and spectroscopy, semiconductor surfaces, and carbon
nanotubes. Since joining Northwestern University in 2000, Dr. Hersam
has received several awards including the Arnold and Mabel Beckman
Young Investigator Award (2001), National Science Foundation CAREER
Award (2001), Searle Center for Teaching Excellence Fellowship (2001),
Army Research Office Young Investigator Award (2005), Office of Naval
Research Young Investigator Award (2005), Alfred P. Sloan Research
Fellowship (2005), Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and
Engineers (2005), TMS Robert Lansing Hardy Award (2006), and AVS Peter
Mark Award (2006).
Hersam completed his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering at the University
of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2000 under the support of a National
Science Foundation Graduate Fellowship and an IBM Distinguished
Fellowship. In 1997, Dr. Hersam received his M.Phil. in Microelectronic
Engineering and Semiconductor Physics from the University of Cambridge
(UK) under the support of a British Marshall Scholarship. Prior to
graduate school, Dr. Hersam graduated with Highest Honors from the
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1996 with a B.S. in
Electrical Engineering. Besides his educational training, Dr. Hersam
has also been employed by Argonne National Laboratory and IBM T. J.
Watson Research Center where he performed research on surface acoustic
wave sensors and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes.
Dawn Bonnell, Ph.D,
University of Pennsylvania
Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and Director of the
Center of Science and Engineering of Nanoscale Systems at the
University of Pennsylvania, is one of the world's foremost experts on
nanotechnology and nanoscience. In 2002, Bonnell established the Center
for Science and Engineering of Nanoscale Systems (SENS) at the
University of Pennsylvania. Her research group is focused on
the fundamental basis of property variations at atomic scales in
complex materials and is exploiting these variations to make functional
systems. Issues involving properties of materials at nm size
are limiting in several emerging technologies. While several accurate
tools exist for structure determination in solids, local property
variations have been much less accessible. The application of scanning
probe analysis has yielded considerable insight as to size dependent
properties and surface or interface mediated bahaviour of materials.
Her group has used atomic resolution STM of transition surfaces to show
that variations are accommodated through the stabilization of surface
phases. Comparision of in situ measurements to continuum or quantum
mechanical models are used to elucidate fundamental bahavior.
Research topics include: atomistic processes at surfaces,
properties of individual molecules, transport across atomically abrupt
interfaces, size dependent properties of clusters, and domain specific
Brinker, Ph.D, University
of New Mexico and Sandia National Laboratories
Jeffrey Brinker attended
Rutgers University where he received his B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees
in ceramic science and engineering. Jeff joined Sandia National
Laboratories (SNL) as a Member of the Technical Staff in 1979. He was
promoted to Distinguished Member of the Technical Staff at SNL and
appointed Distinguished National Laboratory Professor of Chemistry and
Chemical Engineering at the University of New Mexico (UNM) in 1991.
Since 1999, he has been jointly employed at SNL where he is Sandia
Fellow and at UNM where he is Regent’s Professor of Chemical
and Nuclear Engineering with co-appointments in the Departments of
Molecular Genetics and Microbiology and Chemistry. Brinker has been
recognized nationally and internationally for his work in sol-gel
processing and its extension to self-assembly of porous and composite
nanostructures. His awards include R&D100 Awards in 1996 and
2007, the American Chemical Society’s Ralph K. Iler Award in
the Chemistry of Colloidal Materials (sponsored by DuPont), five
Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences Awards, the DOE Ernest O.
Lawrence Memorial Award in Materials Science, and the Materials
Research Society 2003 MRS Medal. In February 2002 he was elected into
the National Academy of Engineering.
Evelyn Hu, Ph.D,
Hu is Gordon McKay
Professor of Applied Physics and Electrical Engineering at Harvard
University. Her research focuses on high-resolution fabrication of
compound semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices, candidate
structures for the realization of quantum computation schemes, and on
novel device structures formed through the heterogeneous integration of
materials. Recently her work has involved the interaction of quantum
dots in high Q microdisk and photonic crystal cavities.
Hu received Ph.D. and Master’s degrees in Physics from
Columbia University and a B.A. in Physics from Barnard College. Prior
to her appointment at Harvard, she was Scientific Co-Director,
California Nanosystems Institute and a Professor the Departments of
inElectrical and Computer Engineering and Materials at the University
of California, Santa Barbara. She also worked at AT&T Bell
Laboratories, developing microfabrication and nanofabrication
techniques for high performance superconducting and semiconducting
devices and circuits. Hu is a member of the National Academy of
Engineering, the Academica Sinica of Taiwan, a recipient of an NSF
Distinguished Teaching Fellow award, an AAAS Lifetime Mentor Award, a
Fellow of the IEEE, APS, and the AAAS, and holds an honorary Doctorate
of Engineering from the University of Glasgow. She was selected UCSB
Faculty Research Lecturer in 2005.
Lundstrom is the Don and
Scifres Distinguished Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering
at Purdue University where he teaches and performs
research on the physics,
simulation of electronic devices. Lundstrom is the founding director of
the NSF-funded Network for Computational Nanotechnology, which has a
mission of research, education, leadership, and service to the
nation’s National Nanotechnology Initiative. He serves on the
leadership councils of the NASA-funded Institute for Nanoelectronics
and Computing and the MARCO Focus Center for Materials, Structures, and
Devices. Lundstrom’s work has been recognized by several
awards, most recently the 2005 US Semiconductor Industry
Association’s University Research Award for his career
contributions to the physics and modeling of semiconductor devices.
Nel, MD, Ph.D,
University of California Los Angeles
Nel is a Professor of
Medicine and Chief of the Division of NanoMedicine at University of
California Los Angeles (UCLA). He runs the Cellular Immunology
Activation Laboratory in the Johnson Cancer Center and the Laboratory
for Nanosafety Research and Testing in the California NanoSystems
Institute (CNSI) at UCLA. Dr. Nel obtained his M.B., Ch.B. (MD) and
Doctorate of Medicine (PhD equivalent) degrees from the University of
Stellenbosch in Cape Town, South Africa, and subsequently did Clinical
Immunology and Allergy training at UCLA. Dr Nel is the Principal
Investigator of the UCLA Asthma and Immunology Disease Center,
Co-Director of the Southern California Particle Center and Director of
the UC Lead Campus Program for Nanotoxicology Research and Training. Dr
Nel served a Chair of a study section at the NIAID and is Chair of the
Air Pollution Committee in the AAAAI. Dr. Nel is a member of the ASCI,
AAAAI, AAI and the Western Association of Physicians.
Dr. Nel’s chief research
interests are: (i) Nanomedicine and Nanobiology, including nanomaterial
properties that lead to biocompatible and biohazardous interactions in
humans and the environment; (ii) The role of air pollutants in asthma,
with particular emphasis on the role of ultrafine particle-induced
oxidative stress in the generation of airway inflammation and airway
hyperreactivity. The theme of oxidative stress as a test paradigm for
nanomaterial hazard and as a predictive paradigm for initiating high
throughput toxicological assessment of nanomaterials links these
research aspects together. The research is funded by personal RO1
grants from the NIH, the NIAD-funded Asthma and Immunology Disease
Clinical Research Center, an EPA STAR award, a UC Lead Campus Program
for Nanotoxicology Research.
Welser, Ph.D, IBM and
Nanoelectronics Research Initiative
Welser has been on assignment
from the IBM Corporation since mid-2006 to serve as the Director of the
Nanoelectronics Research Initiative (NRI), and is based at the IBM
Almaden Research Center in San Jose, CA. The NRI supports
university-based research on future nanoscale logic devices to replace
the CMOS transistor in the 2020 timeframe.
Welser received his Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering from Stanford
University in 1995 and joined IBM's Research Division at the T.J.
Watson Research Center. Since joining IBM, Dr. Welser has worked on a
variety of novel devices, including nano-crystal and quantum-dot
memories, vertical-FET DRAM, and Si-based optical detectors, and
eventually took over managing the Novel Silicon Device group at Watson.
He was also working at the time as an adjunct professor at Columbia
University, teaching semiconductor device physics.
In 2000 Dr. Welser took an assignment
in Technology Group Headquarters, and then joined the Microelectronics
division in 2001 as project manager for the high-performance CMOS
device design groups. After later being named Director of
high-performance SOI and BEOL technology development, he continued to
work as the IBM Management Committee Member for the Sony, Toshiba, and
AMD development alliances. Dr. Welser returned to the Research Division
as the Director of Next Generation Technology Components where he
worked on the Next Generation Computing project, looking at technology,
hardware and software components for systems in the 2008-2012
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