Smart antennas can help systems meet these requirements in the following manner: First, both phased and adaptive arrays provide increased power by providing higher gain for the desired signal. Phased arrays use narrow pencil beams, particularly with a large number of antenna elements at higher frequencies, to provide higher gain (power) in the direction of the desired signal. Adaptive arrays place a main beam in the direction of the desired signal for an M-fold power gain with M antenna elements.
In terms of interference suppression, phased arrays reduce the probability of interference with the narrower beam, and adaptive arrays adjust the beam pattern to suppress interference. For multipath mitigation, smart antennas can provide diversity, of which there are three basic types: spatial, polarization, and angle (or pattern) diversity. These appear in more detail below.