Site: Institute of Chemistry, FEB RAS
Prospekt 100-letiya, 159
or Post Office Box 2230
Vladivostok, 690022, Russia
Email: chemi@stv.iasnet.ru
Fax: (4232) 311889

Date Visited: October 27, 1995

WTEC Attendees:

J. Moniz (report author), H. B. Ali, D. R. Blidberg, S. Chechin, M. J. DeHaemer, L. Gentry, J. B. Mooney, D. Walsh

Hosts:

Institute of Chemistry

Prof. Yura A. Shchipunov

Vice-Director. Phone: (4232) 314481

N. Korobtsova

Assistant on International Relations

High Technologies Association

Acad. Vyacheslav M. Bouznik

President. Phone: (4232) 312590

BACKGROUND

The Institute of Chemistry was established in 1971 by Academician Yu. V. Gagarinsky from the Chemistry Department which was begun in the 1930s. The current staff is 200 (345 in 1991) with a budget of about $200K; this, according to Prof. Shchipunov, relates to salaries which are below minimum living levels. The institute is composed of 14 laboratories and an engineering-technical center (each is described in the referenced institute brochure). Although we spent about three hours at the institute, much of that time was spent in the director's office. We did get to tour two laboratory areas, but again because we talked with the researchers in their offices, we did not have the chance to view laboratory equipment.

The High Technologies Association is a public entity, founded mid-1994, that assists young researchers trying to start high technology businesses. There is now not enough funding for the RAS; the federal budget is 10% that in 1985. Many researchers have moved out of RAS institutes into business. The High Technologies Association was established to give these researchers specific help in the areas of business management, advertising, marketing, and legal matters. It also represents the entrepreneur before the authorities. The High Technologies Association is supported by USAID grants. It currently has 12 members; each is charged $100 annual dues. The association works to assure that it is not marketing competing technologies, which helps to explain the modest size of its membership. The president, Academician Vyacheslav M. Bouznik, was for five years the director of the Institute of Chemistry.

RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT

The Laboratory of Inorganic Fluorides

Under laboratory head Prof. V. M. Bouznik, the Laboratory of Inorganic Fluorides does research and analysis in the following areas:

[figure 2_13]
Fig. 2.13. Product comparison.

Table 2.2
Performance Comparison*



"New Cathodic Materials for Lithium CCS were produced on the basis of graphite with power-consumption up to 3.5 kW hr/kg for tension of broken chain (TBC) 3.8-5.2V (reserves) and with power-consumption up to 2.2 kW hr/kg for TBC 2.0V (long-term employment) and on the basis of Teflon and hydrolytic lignine with power-consumption up to 3.5-4.8 kW hr/kg for TCB 3.2 V."

*[Retyped verbatim from the original supplied by Institute of Chemistry. Note that Russian notation for decimal point, i.e., comma, has been replaced by U.S. notation (period).]

[figure 2_14]
Fig. 2.14. ForumO particle size analysis.

The Laboratory of Sorption Processes

Dr. V. A. Avramenko, head of the laboratory, works on the following technologies:

  1. A water supply cleaning filter which uses highly selective ion-exchange for sewage cleaning or even oil refining
  2. Adsorption material which is used to clean water of liquid radioactive waste. They claim their radioactive waste separation material will filter out any radioactive isotope.
  3. V. A. Avramenko stated that the choice of the correct solvent is important in their separation and filtering processes.

The Laboratory of Protective Films

S. V. Gnedenkov, assistant head of the laboratory, provided an overview of work being performed on the micro-arc oxidation coating of metal surfaces:

  1. Their coatings have reduced marine corrosion on titanium and titanium alloys up to 200 times.
  2. Their dry coating on titanium has reduced friction 12-18 times.
  3. They also work on cookware coatings and coatings for aluminum and titanium pistons that have micro-hardnesses up to 105 Mpa.
  4. This techniques can be used as a primer before application of a fluoroplastic coating or as a base before lacquer application.
  5. They showed us samples of their variously-colored coatings which can be used on exterior metal framing for industrial applications.

Dr. Gnedenkov noted that their process produces no pollution.

The Laboratory of Marine Corrosion

The Laboratory of Marine Corrosion works on the following:

  1. They have developed a thermoplastic-based anti-biofouling paint that has environmentally safe biocide components; the paint is effective for four years. They admit, however, that they must do more testing to certify the environmental safety of their paint.
  2. The laboratory also runs the Marine Corrosion Station, which is unique in Russia.
  3. They are interested in starting an international center for corrosion studies at the station.
  4. The main directions of the laboratory are to test any materials a customer might choose at the Marine Corrosion Station.

The Laboratory of Fluoride Glasses

Professor Yura A. Shchipunov gave information about this laboratory headed by Dr. V. K. Goncharuk:

  1. Phase behavior, structure, dynamics, and processes of glass formation in mixtures of fluoride, bromide, and chloride salts of transitions metals are studied.
  2. New glasses are being developed for fiber optics and laser equipment that offer special properties when compared to quartz.

The Laboratory of Light-Transforming Materials

Dr. A. G. Mirochnik, assistant head of the laboratory, presented the main research themes:

  1. They introduce complexes of rare-earth metals into polyethylene films to convert UV radiation to IR for application in greenhouses. We also discussed the possibility of using these types of substances to filter various types of radiation.
  2. A fluoro-luminescence method for detecting AIDS in blood. Suitable compounds are under investigation. They expect that the method is the best one for detection. This is an antigen detection method instead of the current test which tests for the presence of AIDS antibodies. The antigen method is much simpler and more straightforward, promising faster testing (that can be performed by more facilities). FDA approval for the use of this method in the United States was expected in 1996.

SUMMARY

The institute's brochure listed several analysis techniques which would enable them to do the work described above. These techniques are nuclear magnetic resonance, electron spin resonance, nuclear quadropole resonance, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), extended x-ray fine analysis, and Mossbauer effect analysis. Unfortunately, time did not allow us to view any of this equipment, nor interesting processes such as their fluoropolymer synthesis.

Subjectively, this institute and its staff left a positive impression -- it is likely to be one of the survivors. The staff were enthusiastic and seemed strongly entrepreneurial. They have started working on such new themes as self-organized structures of phospholipids and enzymatic synthesis in disperse media (Prof. Yu. A. Shchipunov, head of the Laboratory of Colloid Systems and Interfacial Processes) and fullerene derivatives (Dr. A. M. Ziatdinov, head of the Laboratory of Electron Physical Methods of Investigation). The building's physical condition appeared good, but unfortunately, it is not possible to comment on the state of their analytical and synthesis facilities.


Published: August 1996; WTEC Hyper-Librarian