Site: Institute of Chemistry, FEB RAS
Prospekt 100-letiya, 159
or Post Office Box 2230
Vladivostok, 690022, Russia
Fax: (4232) 311889
Date Visited: October 27, 1995
J. Moniz (report author), H. B.
Ali, D. R. Blidberg, S. Chechin, M. J. DeHaemer, L. Gentry, J. B.
Mooney, D. Walsh
Institute of Chemistry
Prof. Yura A. Shchipunov
Vice-Director. Phone: (4232) 314481
Assistant on International Relations
High Technologies Association
Acad. Vyacheslav M. Bouznik
President. Phone: (4232) 312590
The Institute of Chemistry was established in 1971 by Academician
Yu. V. Gagarinsky from the Chemistry Department which was begun in the
1930s. The current staff is 200 (345 in 1991) with a budget of about
$200K; this, according to Prof. Shchipunov, relates to salaries which
are below minimum living levels. The institute is composed of 14
laboratories and an engineering-technical center (each is described in
the referenced institute brochure). Although we spent about three hours
at the institute, much of that time was spent in the director's office.
We did get to tour two laboratory areas, but again because we talked
with the researchers in their offices, we did not have the chance to
view laboratory equipment.
The High Technologies Association is a public entity, founded
mid-1994, that assists young researchers trying to start high
technology businesses. There is now not enough funding for the RAS; the
federal budget is 10% that in 1985. Many researchers have moved out of
RAS institutes into business. The High Technologies Association was
established to give these researchers specific help in the areas of
business management, advertising, marketing, and legal matters. It also
represents the entrepreneur before the authorities. The High
Technologies Association is supported by USAID grants. It currently has
12 members; each is charged $100 annual dues. The association works to
assure that it is not marketing competing technologies, which helps to
explain the modest size of its membership. The president, Academician
Vyacheslav M. Bouznik, was for five years the director of the Institute
RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
The Laboratory of Inorganic Fluorides
Under laboratory head Prof. V. M. Bouznik, the Laboratory of
Inorganic Fluorides does research and analysis in the following
- Fluoroplastics (Teflon) for use in the nuclear power industry. This
material is also used for fillers in medical ointments and cosmetics
and as coatings for artificial (metal) bones.
- Low-cost fluoroplastic production. The laboratory produces and
markets ForumO, a motor oil wear-reduction additive being touted as a
Slick-50 competitor. It has a smaller and more uniform particle size
than Slick-50; see product comparison in Figure
2.13 and ForumO particle size analysis in Figure
2.14 (both in Russian, but easily understood). The researchers
claim that the smaller particles adhere to the metal parts better -- in
addition, they use what they call modified fluoropolymers with active
centers, also for better adhesion. The active center is probably a side
group of the polymer which reacts with surface oxides of the metal to
chemically bond the fluoropolymer to the metal. Their product is
effective up to 300°C; wear is reduced 2-10 times; oil life is
increased 2 times; friction is reduced 20%; and fuel efficiency is
- Cathode materials using a fluoropolymer coating on lithium battery
cathodes. Their materials are patented and can double the capacity of
lithium batteries. A specific performance comparison is shown in Table
2.2. They have discussed this technology with
- Prof. Bouznik sees two main problems associated with the use of
fluoroplastics: (1) they are difficult to plate on metal (though, from
what is reported above, they have had some success in overcoming this
problem) and (2) they are a potential environmental problem since they
cannot be destroyed completely -- there will be 40% waste
- Their major contribution is their fluoroplastic powder synthesis
process. Teflon powder normally costs $500-1200/kg if one wishes to
produce it an environmentally sound way; their process is
environmentally sound, costs much less, and produces 0.35 mm average
particle size compared to the 2-5 mm material normally produced in the
Fig. 2.13. Product comparison.
"New Cathodic Materials for Lithium CCS were produced on
the basis of graphite with power-consumption up to 3.5 kW hr/kg for
tension of broken chain (TBC) 3.8-5.2V (reserves) and with
power-consumption up to 2.2 kW hr/kg for TBC 2.0V (long-term
employment) and on the basis of Teflon and hydrolytic lignine with
power-consumption up to 3.5-4.8 kW hr/kg for TCB 3.2 V."
*[Retyped verbatim from the original supplied by Institute of
Chemistry. Note that Russian notation for decimal point, i.e., comma,
has been replaced by U.S. notation (period).]
Fig. 2.14. ForumO particle size analysis.
The Laboratory of Sorption Processes
Dr. V. A. Avramenko, head of the laboratory, works on the following
- A water supply cleaning filter which uses highly selective
ion-exchange for sewage cleaning or even oil refining
- Adsorption material which is used to clean water of liquid
radioactive waste. They claim their radioactive waste separation
material will filter out any radioactive isotope.
- V. A. Avramenko stated that the choice of the correct solvent is
important in their separation and filtering processes.
The Laboratory of Protective Films
S. V. Gnedenkov, assistant head of the laboratory, provided an
overview of work being performed on the micro-arc oxidation coating of
- Their coatings have reduced marine corrosion on titanium and
titanium alloys up to 200 times.
- Their dry coating on titanium has reduced friction 12-18
- They also work on cookware coatings and coatings for aluminum and
titanium pistons that have micro-hardnesses up to 105 Mpa.
- This techniques can be used as a primer before application of a
fluoroplastic coating or as a base before lacquer application.
- They showed us samples of their variously-colored coatings which
can be used on exterior metal framing for industrial applications.
Dr. Gnedenkov noted that their process produces no pollution.
The Laboratory of Marine Corrosion
The Laboratory of Marine Corrosion works on the following:
- They have developed a thermoplastic-based anti-biofouling paint
that has environmentally safe biocide components; the paint is
effective for four years. They admit, however, that they must do more
testing to certify the environmental safety of their paint.
- The laboratory also runs the Marine Corrosion Station, which is
unique in Russia.
- They are interested in starting an international center for
corrosion studies at the station.
- The main directions of the laboratory are to test any materials a
customer might choose at the Marine Corrosion Station.
The Laboratory of Fluoride Glasses
Professor Yura A. Shchipunov gave information about this laboratory
headed by Dr. V. K. Goncharuk:
- Phase behavior, structure, dynamics, and processes of glass
formation in mixtures of fluoride, bromide, and chloride salts of
transitions metals are studied.
- New glasses are being developed for fiber optics and laser
equipment that offer special properties when compared to quartz.
The Laboratory of Light-Transforming Materials
Dr. A. G. Mirochnik, assistant head of the laboratory, presented the
main research themes:
- They introduce complexes of rare-earth metals into polyethylene
films to convert UV radiation to IR for application in greenhouses. We
also discussed the possibility of using these types of substances to
filter various types of radiation.
- A fluoro-luminescence method for detecting AIDS in blood. Suitable
compounds are under investigation. They expect that the method is the
best one for detection. This is an antigen detection method instead of
the current test which tests for the presence of AIDS antibodies. The
antigen method is much simpler and more straightforward, promising
faster testing (that can be performed by more facilities). FDA approval
for the use of this method in the United States was expected in
The institute's brochure listed several analysis techniques which
would enable them to do the work described above. These techniques are
nuclear magnetic resonance, electron spin resonance, nuclear quadropole
resonance, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (x-ray
photoelectron spectroscopy), extended x-ray fine analysis, and
Mossbauer effect analysis. Unfortunately, time did not allow us to view
any of this equipment, nor interesting processes such as their
Subjectively, this institute and its staff left a positive
impression -- it is likely to be one of the survivors. The staff were
enthusiastic and seemed strongly entrepreneurial. They have started
working on such new themes as self-organized structures of
phospholipids and enzymatic synthesis in disperse media (Prof. Yu. A.
Shchipunov, head of the Laboratory of Colloid Systems and Interfacial
Processes) and fullerene derivatives (Dr. A. M. Ziatdinov, head of the
Laboratory of Electron Physical Methods of Investigation). The
building's physical condition appeared good, but unfortunately, it is
not possible to comment on the state of their analytical and synthesis
Published: August 1996; WTEC