Morteplotekhnika Scientific Research Institute (St. Petersburg). Although a WTEC team did not visit this site, in the one-page summary of the institute's activities, MTT stated that it has designed, constructed, and delivered high speed (to 75 kt) underwater apparatuses. If so, this implies an advanced in-house hydrodynamics capability, but no further information was available.
State Nautical University (St. Petersburg). This academic institution uses its faculty and graduate students to do a variety of marine technical research projects. The university has a major hydrodynamic design and testing capability. Research projects have included work on the control of boundary layers on submersible vehicles through suction, injection of liquid (water-soluble polymers), and elastic (compliant) coatings. University researchers have also developed a design concept that optimizes hydrodynamic hull-propeller interaction to reduce drag and increase propulsive efficiency.
The university has extensive hydrodynamic test facilities that are described in Chapter 7 of this report. A review of the characteristics of the facilities available will provide some indications of the types of hydrodynamic programs in progress at the university. In addition to the test facilities, the university has extensive programs in computer-aided mathematical modeling of various hydrodynamic problems.
Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute (St. Petersburg). This is Russia's principal shipbuilding research institute. The WTEC team was told that this organization, the most comprehensive of the hydrodynamics research organizations visited by the WTEC teams, characterizes itself as the equivalent of the U.S. Navy's David Taylor Naval Research and Development Center in Carderock, Maryland. One of the seven divisions is Hydro and Air Mechanics, which does both design and testing in these fields.
Institute of Hydromechanics. This institute, which is under the Department of Mechanics of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, has a total staff of 300 persons, 150 of whom are research personnel. The types of hydrodynamics work can be seen by examining the titles of the institute's 12 departments:
Current areas of investigation related to the hydrodynamics of undersea vehicles are:
The institute has several sophisticated test facilities (see Chapter 7).
Of special interest are the following research projects:
While both developments are remarkable from a hydrodynamics point of view, there seems to be little potential application to the design of deep submersibles.
Deacon Laboratory of the National Environmental Research Council. The general, preliminary outline design for the Autosub project was done by Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering, Ltd. However, the hydrodynamics research on optimum vehicle shapes is being done through the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Surrey. The hydrodynamics work began in 1990. Hull design work has concentrated on a laminar flow shape with the propeller integrated into the body shape as much as possible to reduce drag-inducing interaction with the hull. Wind tunnel tests were initially used to test various low drag shapes.
A major unknown at this point is the effect of smaller scale ocean turbulence and particulate matter in seawater on the performance of the low drag hull. Deacon Laboratory has conducted model work at sea to test low drag performance of the hull shapes, and to better understand ocean turbulence and particulates effects on it. Full scale shapes have been released for buoyant ascent from water depths as great as 1,000 m.