Deep ocean submersibles such as the Mirs and Nautile continue to be effective platforms for undersea work and research because of their extensive sensor, instrumentation, and manipulative capability. The Mir submersibles are considered by some scientists to be the best equipped and most capable research tools for deep sea (6,000 m) research.

Although Russia and Ukraine have developed limited remote sensing capability for ocean studies using Lidar and acoustic Doppler current profilers, these designs are not unique and are within the current state of practice. Oceanographic instruments (CTDs, current meters, etc.) are being marketed by Russia and Ukraine. Their data quality is unknown, and intercalibrations should be conducted to determine measurement capabilities. Other factors, such as price, reliability, and maintainability, must also be addressed.

Research-type ROVs and AUVs are being actively developed by several European countries outside of the FSU. Unmanned platforms for undersea and oceanographic research using enhanced sensors and samplers are being supported as major programs by the EEC. This is in marked contrast to the United States, where there is no major focused thrust for developing scientific AUVs.


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Published: June 1994; WTEC Hyper-Librarian