SITE REPORTS - RUSSIA

Site: Andreev Institute
Chermik #4
Moscow 117036
Russia
Telephone:126-7401
Fax: 126-8411
Email: DUBROV@ASU.ACOIMS.MSK.SU

Date Visited: May 11, 1993

Report Author: D. Blidberg

ATTENDEES

WTEC:

D. Blidberg

HOSTS:

Nikolae Dubrovsky - Director

BACKGROUND

Andreev Institute has traditionally focused on basic research into sound propagation in the sea, although it is now considering air acoustics and other applications. The institute is concerned with scientific research, not prototype development. It is involved in five areas of acoustic research: (1) ocean, (2) oil and gas, (3) medical, (4) ecological, and (5) air acoustics.

A technical institute, Andreev has previously worked only on problems provided by the user community. Recently the institute's scientists have been given more freedom to choose their research directions, but they have far less support to accomplish that research. Recently Andreev's two-building complex has experienced reductions to the point where part of one building is used by a commercial company. Mr. Nikolae Dubrovsky's lab has been reduced from thirty-five people to eight in the last eight years.

The institute has two large ships, ranging up to 10,000 tons, that are configured for acoustics research. The ships are not in use now, but the institute is trying to find companies with which to form joint ventures in order to have the funding required to return the ships to operation.

Applications include: drag reduction, sound and vibration, bionic research, neural networks, navigation, ultrasound, ecological, nonlinear acoustics, algorithmic processing of data, underwater communications, and bore head telemetry.

Drag Reduction

The institute did some work in the 1970s on drag reduction, but subsequently stopped. Since then the personnel involved have left the institute.

Sound and Vibration

Andreev has worked on developing materials and coatings to reduce sound, investigating methods of determining where to place the materials for optimum noise reduction.

Bionic Research

Research into dolphins and other marine animals' sonar capabilities has sparked interest in understanding what can be applied to sonar systems. Marine mammals like the dolphin have a sonar system that is a "whole" system, that is, the physiological characteristics of the animal and its behavior are part of the entire sonar system. Scientists have learned from this that 5 to 100 neurons can sometimes have a processing capability that is equivalent to a million computers.

Neural Networks

The institute is investigating some basic issues associated with neural networks. The institute's scientists want to know how a group of neurons with m/sec response times can be connected so that the group can detect m/sec variations. Andreev does not have a large research effort in the neural networks area at this time.

Navigation

The Andreev Institute is interested in undersea transponders with extended durations. Some work has been undertaken that is directed at the development of transponders -- extending transponder endurance through the use of a sleep mode. The institute's scientists expect to extend the life of transponders by one or more years by using a wake up mode.

The institute has been investigating the design of a multibeam receiver for obtaining accurate range and bearing determination using transponders. The institute's investigations suggest bearing accuracies of 1. Andreev's scientists have not built these receivers, but they have completed the design investigations.

Bottom referenced navigation. This project focused on using bathymetric data to monitor the movement of slow moving objects such as oil rigs. Researchers compared data acquired from a multibeam sonar with previous data to obtain motion accuracy of 1 cm. The institute has a multibeam sonar of 100 1 beams.

Bore hole localization. The institute's scientists are considering using stationary arrays to monitor the drilling head position for oil. Their processing will eliminate the noise associated with drilling and will allow for range and boring to drill head.

Ultrasound

This effort is focused on medical applications. Sound Vision System, an acoustic imaging system that uses 1 MHz and a 100 x 100 array with 1 beams was discussed. The beams are electronically formed from the array data.

Ecological

The institute is investigating such environmental applications as the following:

Nonlinear Acoustics

The institute is working on parametric sonar techniques for different applications.

  1. For oil exploration, the institute's scientists are using sediment to mix carriers around 300 kHz to obtain a 600 Hz difference in frequency for subbottom profiling and seismic analysis.

  2. The institute's scientists believe that they can obtain pollutant concentrations by analyzing received pulses over small volumes of water (1 m to 10 m) paths. They have conducted some experiments to understand changes in concentrations of pollutants to 1 part in 108.

Algorithmic Processing of Data

After years of working on matched field processing, the institute is either applying or exploring application of that technique to the following problems:

  1. Long path acoustic current meter. Here the matched field techniques minimize the errors introduced by bottom and surface reverberations in shallow water channels. The technique increases the accuracy of fluid flow measurements in long, shallow water channels.

  2. Understanding the internal wave structure of a channel. Andreev's scientists feel that they can understand the health of a body of water by determining flows in and out of that water as described by the structure of water in the channel.

  3. Underwater acoustic holography, using optical waveguide techniques to better understand underwater sound channels.

  4. Sediment measurements through a project to measure sediment properties by using acoustics. By measuring the effect of an acoustic wave as it propagates through the marine sediment, various parameters can be determined.

Underwater Communications

The institute's scientists have worked on some communication systems that they cannot discuss. They also have examined some of the filter processing techniques being applied to underwater communications. They believed there was a need for long range (2,000 to 3,000 km) communications at low data rates. The same techniques can be applied to shorter ranges with correspondingly higher data rates (e.g., 20 Hz 10 for ranges of 1,000 to 2,000 km using a receiver with 18 bit resolution).

Bore Head Telemetry

Scientists at the institute want to use their techniques for implementing a telemetry system from the drill head to the surface by using a low data rate system without cables.

SUMMARY

In summary, in the area of research projects, the institute's focus is on basic research. The institute also is involved with the actual development of systems. Although several projects are being considered, the status of those projects is not clear.

The institute works with personal computer (PC)-type workstations and develops some of the applications using DSP chips. Andreev Institute's scientists recognize their need for more capable computer hardware, but have accomplished much with existing processing capabilities.


Published: June 1994; WTEC Hyper-Librarian