The German program appears to be more focused than either the U.S. or the Japanese programs. The BMBF plays a dominant role in funding the applied programs in superconductivity, but details of the program are worked out with the large German utilities. There is a particularly strong fusion program at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, which supports large capabilities in helium cryogenics and LTS high field magnets. As in Japan, this large LTS expertise leads to a greater willingness to try out devices based on LTS conductors, even if real economical applications would come only from HTS conductor use. This strong LTS base is a very important component of the German program. The BMBF program requires cost-sharing by industry of about 50%, thus making the German program now about the same size as the U.S. program (Figure ES.1, p. xi). The German program on power applications has greatly strengthened in the last two years. As in Japan, it is sustained by a basic belief that superconductivity will be a key 21st century technology.