ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE AND BUDGETS

ISTEC, or more strictly, its technical arm, the Superconductivity Research Laboratory (SRL), has been known primarily as a center for materials research, with its work on high pinning bulk materials being prominent. Figure 9.1 shows ISTEC's strategic position within the superconducting activities of Japan. Even in Phase 1, ISTEC's role was quite broad, with ISTEC appearing in various MITI-supported activities: Superconducting Magnet Energy Storage (SMES), Super Magnet, Flywheel, Josephson Device, and Superconducting Materials Devices. ISTEC's role is likely to increase further in Phase 2.

SRL's annual budgets have been large compared to any other collaborative activity in any country. Figure 9.2 summarizes the first 9 years of funding for Phase 1. The budget appears as 3 parts: the first component is the initial donations by member companies, a total of ¥4.7 billion (about $39 million)1 , which was used primarily to establish the facilities and instrumentation; the second component is the annual membership fees, which totaled ¥552 million (about $4.6 million) annually for 6 years, with some decline from 1994-6; the third component is government support from NEDO/MITI, which increased steadily to ¥2.366 billion (about $19.7 million) in 1996.


Fig. 9.1. ISTEC's role in Japan's superconductor activities, 1988-98.


Fig. 9.2. ISTEC budget, 1988-1996.

SRL's funding level of the last few years of Phase 1 was about $25 million per year -- a particularly impressive figure when one realizes that it does not include the salaries and benefits of the industrial scientists working at ISTEC. The total expenditure of Phase 1 was over $200 million dollars (excluding the industry salaries), allowing for currency fluctuations over the first 9 years of the project.

Figure 9.3 represents the management structure, projects, and laboratories of ISTEC and SRL. This panel has no information as to how this structure will change in Phase 2.


Fig. 9.3. Organization, projects, and laboratories of ISTEC and SRL (Phase 1, as of October 1997).

Table 9.1 lists the types of industrial companies that are members of SRL. Of the 103 member companies, 11 are foreign and only 22 are specifically identified as electronics and telecommunications firms.

Table 9.1
Supporting Members of ISTEC, by Industry

Field

Special Members

Ordinary Members

Total

 

Japanese

Non- Japanese

Japanese

Non- Japanese

 

Electric Power

10

 

1

 

11

Electronics and Telecommunications

10

 

8

4

22

Electric Cable and Wires

6

     

6

Iron and Steel

4

 

1

 

5

Glass and Ceramics

2

 

1

 

3

Automobile

1

 

2

 

3

Heavy Machinery

3

 

1

 

4

Other Machinery

   

4

 

4

Chemical

 

1

3

1

5

City Gas

1

 

4

 

5

Metal and Mining

1

 

4

 

5

Construction and Engineering

   

13

 

13

Railways

   

2

 

2

Banking and Insurance

   

6

 

6

Research Organizations

2

 

1

5

8

Other Tertiary Industry

   

1

 

1

TOTAL

40

1

52

10

Nationality of Non-Japanese Members of ISTEC as of April 1996

United States

6

Italy

2

Germany

2

Korea

1


Source: ISTEC

The personnel of SRL has grown steadily from 118 in 1989 to 190 in 1996 (Table 9.2). Some interesting trends to note from this table are the decline in researchers sent from industry after a peak in 1991, with a growth in the number of students over the same period. The size of the administrative staff, which has never exceeded 20% of the total workforce, is refreshingly small by U.S. standards.

Table 9.2
SRL Personnel, 1989-96
 

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993.4

1994.4

1995.4

1996.4

Personnel

118

124

133

153

150

173

177

190

Researchers

108

114

108

114

116

129

128

126

<li>Division Directors

7

7

7

8

8

9

10

10

<li>Employed Researchers

5

16

5

6

10

19

10

10

<li>Dispatched Researchers*

95

88

94

88

86

82

85

79

<li>Visiting Researchers

1

3

2

12

12

19

23

18

Students

0

0

10

11

17

21

23

37

Administrative Staff

10

10

15

28

17

23

26

27


* Total number of researchers dispatched from member companies is 228
Total number of visiting researchers is 65
Source: ISTEC

The educational and international aspects of ISTEC, which have no equivalent in any SCE consortium in the United States, have been noted earlier. They are summarized in Tables 9.3 and 9.4. Visiting scientists from abroad have totaled 65, and 228 scientists have come from industry within Japan, gained experience in superconductivity, and have returned (or will return) to their own companies. No similar program of training in superconductivity exists in the United States. A number of scientists (37) have completed their PhD research and obtained doctorates while at SRL. This "on-the- job PhD" is rare in the United States.

Table 9.3
Numbers and Nationalities of Foreign Visiting Scientists at SRL (1989- 96)

Nationality

Number

Nationality

Number

U.S.A

7

Germany

9

U.K.

7

Norway

1

Italy

2

Finland

1

India

3

France

4

Australia

1

Poland

1

Netherlands

1

Russia

2

Canada

2

Korea

8

Thailand

1

China

14

Denmark

1

TOTAL

65


Source: ISTEC

Table 9.4
SRL Doctorates and Patents, 1988-95
 

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

Total

Number of doctorates

0

0

1

0

4

12

15

5(2)*

37

Number of patents

35

65

36

43

40

53

43

40(19)*

355


* (): Examined; Source: ISTEC


1To facilitate comparisons, approximate conversions are given at $1 = ¥120; however, rates in earlier years have varied.
Published: July 1998; WTEC Hyper-Librarian