APPENDIX G. GLOSSARY

AAL2
ATM Adaption Layer 2
ABR
Available-bit-rate
AceS
Asia Cellular Satellite System
ACKS
Aknowledgements
ACTS
Advanced Communication Technology Satellite, a NASA project.
ADSL
Asynchronous digital subscriber loop
AIAA
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics
ALOHA
Rf networking protocol developed initially by University of Hawaii
AMPS
Advanced mobile phone system (Cellular System) or automated message processing system
AMSC
American Mobile Satellite Corporation
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
AOCS
Attitude and orbital control system
APEC
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
API
Application programming interface
APII
Asia Pacific Information Infrastructure
Arabsat
A regional international organization, headquartered in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia that is providing voice, data and television services to Arab countries via a satellite system, now in its third generation
ASEAN
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
ASEE
American Society of Engineering Education
ASIC
Application specific integrated circuit
ASIU
ATM satellite interworking unit
ASME
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ATM
Asynchronous transfer mode
ATSC
Advanced Television Systems Committee
BADLAB
Broadband Applications and Demonstration Laboratory (Communications Research Centre, Canada)
BBS
Baseband switch
BER
Bit error rates
BFN
Beam forming network
BMDO
Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (U.S. Department of Defense)
Bps
Bits per second
BPSK
Binary phase shift keying
BSS
Broadcast satellite services
CAD/CAM
Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing
CBR
Constant-bit-rate
CCITT
Consultative Committee on Telephony and Telegraphy
CDMA
Code division multiple access
CNES
The National Center for Space Studies of France located in Paris and Toulouse, France
CEPT
Council on European Post and Telecommunications
CL
Core logic
CMOS
Complementary metal oxide semiconductor
C/N
Carrier-to-noise ratio
COFDM
Coded orthogonal frequency multiplexing
COMETS
Communications and Broadcasting Engineering Test Satellite
COTS
"Commercial off the shelf" software
CRL
Communications Research Laboratory of Japan, a part of MPT
CSMA
Carrier sense multiple access
DAMA
Demand assignment multiple access
DBS
Direct broadcast systems
DBS
Direct broadcast satellite; the delivery of entertainment television directly to the end consumer using high powered satellites that enables the customer to use small (< 3/4 meter OD) antennas
dB
Decibel
DD
Direct detection
DEMUX
Demultiplexer
DGA
The Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces (of France)
DND
Canadian Department of National Defense
DOD
Department Of Defense (U.S.)
DPSK
Differential phase shift keying
DQPSK
Differential quadrature phase shift keying
DRTS
Detecting, ranging and tracking system
DSL
Digital subscriber line
DTH
Direct-to-the-home
DVB
Digital video broadcast
DWDM
Dense wavelength division multiplexing
Eb/No
Ratio of energy per bit to noise power spectral density
ECO
Equatorial circular orbit
ECU
European Currency Unit (= $1.20 U.S. at date of publication)
EEO
Extremely elliptical orbit
EELV
Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle Program
EHF
Extremely high frequency
EIRP
Effective radiated powers
EOL
End of life
EOS
Earth observation satellite
EPC
Electronic power conditioner
ESA
European Space Agency
ESTEC
European Space Technology Center of ESA located in Noordwyck, Netherlands, the primary research facility of ESA
ETSI
European Telecommunications Standards Institute
EUTELSAT
European Telecommunications Satellite Organization headquartered in Paris
FAA
Federal Aviation Administration (U.S.)
FCC
Federal Communications Commission (U.S.)
FDMA
Frequency division multiple access
FEC
Forward error correction
FET
Field effect transistor
FPGA
Field programmable gate array
FPLMTS
Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunications System
FPS
Fast packet switch
FSS
Fixed satellite service
Gb
Gigabyte
Gbps
Gigabits per second
GBT
Group on Basic Telecommunications
GEO
Geosynchronous earth orbit
GFR
Guaranteed-frame-rate
GHz
Gigahertz
GIBN
Global integrated broadband network
GII
Global information infrastructure
GPS
Global Positioning System (U.S.)
GSM
Global standard for mobile
GS0
Geostationary
G/T
Antenna gain-to-system noise temperature ratio
GTIS
Government Telecommunications and Informatics Services
GTO
Geosynchronous transfer orbit
HALE
High altitude long endurance
HDL
Hardware Description Language
HDSL
High-bit-rate DSL
HDTV
High definition television
HEDD
Human Engineering Design Document
HEMT
High electron mobility transistor
HEO
Highly elliptical orbit
HF
High frequency
HMIC
Hybrid microwave integrated circuit
HPA
High power amplifier
HTTP
Hyper text transport protocol
IBCN
Integrated broadband communications network
I & Q
In phase and quadrature
IC
Integrated circuit
ICBM
Intercontinental ballistic missile
ICO
International Circular Orbit, Ltd., a new commercial and competitive satellite organization created as a spin off of Inmarsat
IDR
Intermediate data rate
IEC
International Electrotechnical Commission
IEEE
Institute of Electrical & Electronic Engineers
IETF
Internet Engineering Task Force
IF
Intermediate frequency
ILS
International launch services (U.S.)
IM
Intensity modulation
IMT-2000
International Mobile Telecommunications in the Year 2000
IMTC
Multimedia Teleconferencing Consortium
Inmarsat
International Mobile Satellite Organization, an international organization with some 80 members that provides maritime, aeronautical and some land mobile satellite services, is headquartered in London, U.K.
INTELSAT
International Telecommunication Satellite Organization, an international organization that provides fixed satellite services on a global basis with some 140 members, headquartered in Washington, DC
INTERSPUTNIK
The satellite system of the former Soviet Union and a number of countries largely associated with the "Eastern Bloc" that used a global network of Stationar and other Russian satellites to provide international voice and Intervision television services around the world
IP
Internet protocol
IP
Intellectual property
IPoS
Internet protocol over satellite
I&Q
In phase and quadrature
ISDB
Interoperability standards database
ISDN
Integrated service digital network
ISL
Intersatellite link
ISO
International Organization for Standardization
Isp
Specific impulse
ITA
Information Technology Agreement
ITU
International Telecommunication Union
IWU
Inter working unit
JEM
The Japanese engineering module on the international space station
JPL
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
JTC
Joint Technical Committee
KB
Kilobyte
kbps
Kilobits per second
kW
Kilowatt
LAN
Local area network
LCE
Laser Communications Experiment
LEO
Low earth orbit
LMDS
Local multi-point distribution service, a broadband wireless service for telecommunications services that operates in the 20/30 GHz band and is just starting to be deployed in the U.S. and other countries
LMS
Land mobile service
LNA
Low noise amplifier
Mb
Megabyte
Mbit
Megabit
Mbps
Megabits per second
MEO
Medium-earth orbit
MHS
Microwave humidity sounder
MHZ
Megahertz
MITI
Ministry of International Trade and Industry (Japan)
MMDS
Megabit multi-point distribution service, is a wireless telecommunications service that is sometimes also called wireless cable television
MMIC
Monolithic microwave integrated circuit
MPEG
Motion Pictures Expert Group, a global standard for digital television broadcasting at a data rate of six megabits/second now broadly used in satellite systems
MPEG 2
Second generation specification of MPEG used for digital broadcasting, among other things
MPT
Ministry of Post and Telecommunications (Japan)
msec
Millisecond
MSAT
Satellite produced by Mobile Satellite Communications and SPAR partnership
MSS
Maritime mobile satellite service
MTTF
Mean time to failure
MUX
Multiplexer
mW
Milliwatt
NASDA
National Space Development Agency of Japan
NASA
National Aeronautics & Space Administration (U.S.)
NF
Noise figure
NGI
Next generation Internet
NGSO
Non-geostationary
NII
National information infrastructure
NREN
National Research & Education Network
NSF
National Science Foundation
NSSK
North - south stationkeeping
NTIA
National Telecommunications & Information Association
NTSC
National Television Standards Committee
NYNEX
New York-New England Exchange (Telephone Company)
OBP
Onboard processing
OCRInet
Ottawa Carleton Research Institute Network, Inc.
OICETS
Optical Interconnection Communications Experimental Telecommunications Satellite (Japan), a small experimental satellite designed to carry out intersatellite link experiments in cooperation with the European SILEX experiment
PAT
Pointing, acquisition and tracking
PCS
Personal communication service (digital wireless standard)
PDH
Plesiochronous digital hierarchy
PIM
Passive intermodulation
PLCP
Physical layer convergence protocol
PLD
Programmable logic device
PPT
Pulsed plasma thruster
PSK
Phase shift keying
8PSK
8ary phase shift keying
PSTN
Public switched telephone network
QoS
Quality-of-service
QPSK
Quadrature phase shift keying
RAM
Random-access memory
RBOC
Regional Bell operating company
Reachback
Long distance communication link from a remote area to an area of significant infrastructure
rf
Radio frequency
RFC
Request for comment
RFI
Request for information
RTT
Round trip time
SACK
Selective acknowledgement
SAR
Synthetic aperture radar
SAW
Surface acoustic wave
SCD
The Satellite Communications Division of TIA
SCPC
Single channel per carrier
SDH
Synchronous digital hierarchy
SDSL
Symmetric DSL
SECOMS
Satellite EHF Communications for Mobile Multimedia Services
SEU
Single event upset
SHF
Super high frequency
SIA
Satellite Industry Association
SILEX
Semiconductor Intersatellite Link Experiment
SINUS
Satellite Integration into Network for UMTS Services
SITF
Satellite Industry Task Force
SMS
Satellite matrix switch
SOC
System-on-chip
SOI
Silicon on insulator
SONET
Synchronous optical network
SOS
Silicon on sapphire
SOTT
Small optical telecommunications terminal
SOUT
Small optical user terminal
SPIE
Society of photo-optical instrumentation engineers
SPT
Stationary plasma thruster
SRAM
Static random access memory
SROIL
Short Range Optical Intersatellite Link
SSPA
Solid state power amplifier
SSTDMA
Spread spectrum time division multiple access
TCP/IP
Transport control protocol / Internet protocol
TC8PSK
Trellis coded 8PSK
TDD
Time division duplex
TDM
Time division multiplex
TDMA
Time division multiple access
TDRSS
NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System
TIA
Telecommunications Industry Association
TT&C
Telemetry, tracking and control
TTT&M
Tracking, telemetry command and monitoring
TTT
Telecommunications Technical standards making committee of Japan
TVRO
Television receive only
TWT
Travelling wave tube
TWTA
Traveling wave tube amplifier
UAV
unmanned air vehicle (low altitude satellite)
UBR
Unspecified-bit-rate
UHF
Ultra-high frequency
UMTS
Universal mobile telecommunications system
UNI
User network interface
USAF
United States Air Force
USAT
Ultra small aperture terminal
USSB
United States Satellite Broadcasting
VDSL
Very-high-bit-rate DSL
VHDL
VHSIC hardware description language
VHF
Very high frequency
VHSIC
Very high-speed integrated circuit
VLSI
Very large scale integration
VOD
Video on demand
VPN
Virtual private network
VSAT
Very small aperture terminal
WAN
Wide area network
WRC
World Radio Communication Conference
WTEC
World Technology Evaluation Center
WTO
World Trade Organization, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland
xDSL
Digital subscriber loop, where "x" can stand for:
Inbound Outbound
Asymmetric 1.5 Mbps 64 kbps
Consumer 1 Mbps 128 kbps
High speed 1.544 Mbps 1.544 Mbps
ISDN 128 kbps 128 kbps
RA (rate adaptive) 1.5 Mbps 64 kbps
Symmetric 1.0 Mbps 2.3 Mbps
V (very high speed) 51 Mbps 2.3 Mbps
XVSAT
Switched VSAT
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Published: February 1999; WTEC Hyper-Librarian