SUMMARY OF POLICY SITE VISIT REPORTS
A number of sites were visited by team members to identify key policy issues
and concerns. The following consolidated report on all of these specialized
site visits is reported on in this section.
Site: Aerospace Corp.
2350 El Segundo Blvd.
P.O. Box 92957-M8/219
Los Angeles, CA 90009-2957
(310) 336-3370 (Tel) and (310) 336-3606
- Stephen Burrin, General Manager
- Nathaniel "Ned" Feldman, Senior Engineering Specialist
- Marsha V. Weiskopf, Project Engineer
- Donald Moore, Project Engineer
- Alex Kavetsky, SMC Spectrum Manager
- Nat Bhaskar, Project Engineer
Site: Boeing Defense and Space Group
12214 Lakewood Blvd.
Downey, CA 90242-2693
(562) 922-1901 (Tel) and (562) 922-5822 (Fax)
- Charles Gould, Chief Engineer, Advanced Programs Engineering
- John Kozai, International Satellites, Space Systems Division
- Wally McClure, Strategic and Business Analysis, Space Systems Division
- Jai Bhaguran, Principal Engineering Specialist, Space Systems
2000 M Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20554
(202) 418-0735 (Tel) and (202) 418-0748 (Fax)
- Tom Tycz, Chief Satellite and Radio Communications Div.
Site: Hughes Communications
1500 Hughes Way
P.O. Box 9712
Long Beach, CA 90810-9929
(310) 525-5358 (Tel.) and (310) 525-5031 (fax)
- Michael Fitch, Vice President, Regulatory Affairs and Spectrum
- Raul Rey, Director of Regulatory Affairs and Spectrum Management
1401 H Street, N.W.
Washington, DC 20005
(202) 326-5795 (202) 842-00006 (Fax)
- William English
- Pat Mahoney
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, CA 91109-8099
- Stephen Townes, Deputy Manager, Communications Systems and Research
- Polly Estabrook, Supervisor, Advanced Communications Concepts
- Tom Gedrey, ACTS and Mobile Satellite Communications Programs
Site: Lockheed Martin
Site: NASA Headquarters
Washington, DC 20546
(202) 358-2024 or (202) 358-2020
- David Harris (JPL), Deputy Associate Administrator, Space
- David Struba (JPL), Chief, Spectrum Management
Department of Commerce
14th and Constitution Ave
Washington, DC 20230
- Jack Gleason, Office of International Affairs
- William Hatch, Office of Spectrum Management
Summary of Key Issues and Policy Concerns
The consolidated list of issues and major comments received from all of the
above visits are provided below. Neither resources nor time allocated to this
study were sufficient to address each of these topics within this report, but
the various site visits the panel conducted around the world did confirm that
there are global concerns and support for many of this issues recorded below.
In particular the global site visits documented that there is broad interest in
such issues as: (a) increasing global spectrum allocations for satellite
networks, (b) increased activities to create seamless standards for
interconnection of satellites with terrestrial wireless and fiber networks; (c)
the need to track the conversion of satellite markets from GEO to LEO and MEO
systems and from VSAT to USAT systems; (d) the increasing importance of
security and privacy; (e) the need for further institutional reforms with
regard to INTELSAT, Inmarsat and the ITU among others, and the need for new
procedures related to so-called "paper satellites." In short, the list of
issues recorded below with regard to U.S. commercial and governmental sites
were validated in terms of being of parallel concern in most other sites
visited around the world.
The issues raised in these U.S. site visits are as follows:
- Importance of security, privacy, fraud, authentication, and
- Seamless interconnection of satellite, wireless and cable systems not only
in terms of multiplexing, but also packetization, overheads in broadband ISDN,
delay or latency, etc.
- Ground segment and market trends with regard to small, mobile, compact,
low-cost, interactive and "smart" units, i.e., ultra small aperture terminal
- New gateways or interfaces into the home via either multiple access points
or a consolidated consumer electronics bus. (In short, will satellites have
direct or indirect access and how will this vary around the world?).
- Clear identification of digital audio broadcast and especially Ka-band high
data rate interactive services directly to the customer as new satellite market
- Additional information as to whether governments or regional groups such as
the European Union are indeed moving toward less regulation and market and
pricing control, but also perceiving the need for more standardization and
economic controls or penalties against "abusers" of broad guidelines on
spectrum use, etc.
- International dispute resolution procedures or mechanisms such as those
related to interfering uses of common or adjacent frequencies, damage due to
break-up of satellites or other traceable orbital debris.
- The relative priority and operating procedures affecting GEO versus MEO and
LEO satellite systems as well as information concerning satellite versus
terrestrial systems such as LMDS versus Ka-band satellite systems.
- Vulnerability of broadband global and national telecommunications to
failure or sabotage and the more effective use of satellites to mitigate that
- The growing cost and complexity of security in advanced telecommunications
systems and how satellite systems can best adapt and progress within this new
- The best strategies for developing new, seamless standards, protocols and
approaches to seamlessly interconnecting satellite systems of various types as
well as satellites to fiber and wireless telecommunications systems.
- Use of economic incentives or forfeiture of posted bonds to reduce the use
of "paper satellite" filings, interference with other systems, or creation of
space hazards or debris. (This would be an extension of the application of
Resolution 18 type procedures to additional areas of concerns related to
- Updated or expanded information concerning satellite or wireless systems
operation in terms of potential bio-hazards and test results concerning harmful
levels of irradiated energy.
- Market trends with regard to higher data rate, multimedia services and
applications including virtual reality, 3D displays, and related developments
in digital processing to offer these services at lower speeds or technology or
systems that would reduce the cost of these new high-end applications.
- All aspects of frequency allocations issues including information about
potential plans for spectrum auctioning, improved concepts for frequency
sharing, more effective means of spectrum use including frequencies in the
millimeter wave band and even above.
- The feasibility of more multipurpose/multi-service allocations with more
sharing of spectrum with mitigation strategies.
- Whether there may be a need for future allocation and use procedures in
such areas as infrared or even the visible light spectrum were cited as
examples of areas that might expose "out side of the box" thinking. Mitigation
of interference strategies, frequency auctioning, enhanced sharing, and
standards to allow integration of satellites, wireless and fiber systems were
noted as being of special interest.
- International institutional regulatory reform and streamlining such as
accelerated publishing of intersystem coordination information of systems filed
with the ITU, progress on ITU-2000, GM-PCS, etc.
- Ways to achieve better parity in the disclosure of information about U.S.
satellite systems as opposed to early and clear disclosure of information about
other international systems, including whether ITU screening periods on such
filings could be reduced.
- Trends toward the more coherent or more chaotic patterns of global
allocations of new frequencies above 30 GHz and international attitudes and
opinions on this subject.
- Information concerning trends to allow more coherent national policies with
respect to satellite systems such as in the granting of landing rights and
licensing. Also information about whether there might be progress toward
unified regulatory approaches rather than dividing policies among different
governmental or regulatory units addressing trade, customs policy, standards,
tariffs, etc. on a piecemeal and separate basis.
- Assessments of the degree to which national governments have a longer range
approach to spectrum planning and management.
- Assessments as to the relative role and priorities with respect to
terrestrial versus satellite concerns in regard to both future spectrum
allocations and new standards development.
- Global attitudes with respect to moving toward broader and multi-purpose
allocations of frequencies in broader blocks such as now possible in
terrestrial systems without regulatory constraint. (In this respect updated
information concerning technological progress toward improved mitigation
methods to allow improved sharing between satellite and terrestrial systems and
among and between different satellite systems and different orbits was
considered highly desirable.)
- Information concerning financial controls, economic incentives, posting of
bonds as a regulatory control, and plans relating to frequency auctioning or
systematic approaches to licensing for national operation by international
- Are there any plans in any country to move to the allocation, allotment or
assignment of frequencies in infrared, light waves or other spectra above radio
waves and if so how might this be accomplished as practical as well as formal
process? Are there precedents that might be helpful in looking to this future
- If existing digital compression systems to provide voice at 2.4 or 4.8 kbps
are found inadequate in actual commercial operation, what solutions are there
and are they economic and tariff-based or are they dependent on new technology
and standards? More fundamentally, are the new MSS systems truly going to be
viable in the market and what new innovations or concepts or regulatory actions
- Should issues of latency and delay be considered standards issues,
market/financial/service issues or technology issues (i.e., the SKIPS program
as developed at JPL)?
- The issue of "paper satellite" filings and brokering of orbital locations
or frequency assignment/allotments was noted to be of interest, including
information with regard to the concept of posted bonds against performance
(i.e., Resolution 18 of the ITU). It was noted that the disincentives and
constraints to new market entry for start-up organizations posed by such a
posted bond program was of considerable concern with regard to such an
- What specific ITU initiatives toward reform beyond ITU-2000 and GM-PCS can
be anticipated and are constraints in this regard as much embedded in national
governmental policies as those of the ITU itself?
- Assessments as to whether non-governmental forces such as lending by
investment bankers and location decisions with regard to corporate offices will
impact the rate and extent of regulatory reform and competition, particularly
- A relative assessment of the role, effectiveness and need for change in
regional standards making groups such as ANSI, ETSI and the TTT Committee of
- An assessment of the extent to which direct to the user and bypass services
will actually become possible in various regions of the world and the
constraints that are likely to remain especially with regard to new Ka-band
high data rate multimedia satellites.
- The most complete information about economic measures and financial
controls such as with respect to frequency auctions, posting of bonds with
filings (i.e., Resolution 18), and uniform or non-uniform approaches to
national landing rights and licensing policies.
Published: December 1998; WTEC