2.1 Solid freeform fabrication using a layered manufacturing paradigm
2.2 Generic fixturing.
2.3 Layered manufacturing of pyramids
2.4 SFF enabling technologies
2.5 Laser photolithography
2.6 Other laser photolithography approaches
2.7 Photomasking
2.8 Laser fusion
2.9 Lamination systems
2.10 Extruding freeform shapes
2.11 Ink-jet printing systems
2.12 Why isn't CNC machining an SFF process?
2.13 Lasercaving
2.14 Combining material addition with material removal
2.15 Shape deposition manufacturing
2.16 In the future, SFF will enable complex designs

3.1 Layered mold relief map proposed by Blanther (1892)
3.2 Layered mold of stacked sheets by DiMatteo (1974)
3.3 Admiral Farragut sits, late 1860s, for photosculpture
3.4 François Willème's photosculpturing studio in Paris, about 1870
3.5 Photographic process for the development of plastic objects by Baese (1904)
3.6 Process for manufacturing a relief by Morioka
3.7 Process by Munz (1956) to reproduce a three-dimensional image of an object
3.8 Photosculpture process using intersecting laser beams, by Swainson (1977)
3.9 Powder laser process proposed by Ciraud (1972)
3.10 Schematics of three photopolymer systems studied by Kodama (1981)
3.11 Herbert's photopolymer process (1982)
3.12a Three early rapid prototyping parts, by Kodama, Herbert, and Housholder
3.13 Sculpture by Solid Photography process (Bogart 1979)
3.14 Rapid prototyping chronology

5.1 Modulus-strength materials property chart
5.2 Modulus vs. strength plot of extant photopolymers in North American market
5.3 Asahi Denka resins: modulus vs. strength
5.4 Asahi Denka resins: strain at failure vs. strength
5.5 Asahi Denka resins: impact vs. strength
5.6 Japan Synthetic Rubber resins: modulus vs. strength
5.7 JSR resins: strength vs. elongation
5.8 JSR resins: strength vs. impact resistance
5.9 Teijin Seiki resins: modulus vs. strength
5.10 Comparative overview of Japanese resin systems
5.11 Cubital resins: modulus vs. strength

6.1 Schematic of 3D printing process
6.2 3DP mold exhibiting internal cooling channels
6.3 3DP mold and resulting injection-molded connectors
6.4 DTM's RapidToolTradeMark process for rapid mold making
6.5 Core and cavity sets produced by RapidToolTradeMark.
6.6 Inconel 625 layer formed in an SLS process
6.7 Stainless steel-copper structure built with SDM
6.8 Schematic of a laser deposition process
6.9 Stainless steel objects created by laser deposition process at Sandia
6.10 EOS laser sintering machine
6.11 Laser-sintered mold inserts (IFAM)
6.12 376L parts produced in the MJS process at IFAM
6.13 A direct metal part fabricated in a laser sintering system at IPT
6.14 Laser generated RP process
6.15 Laminated tool created by Nakagawa

7.1 Sand mold, sand positive, and aluminum casting produced within one day (EOS)
7.2 Ceramic parts produced by MJS
7.3 Direct RP mold faces backed with a steel frame

8.1 The rapid prototyping "system".
8.2 RP elements affecting shape
8.3 Geometry form used in STL format
8.4 Data exchange formats for SFF machines
8.5 Model preparation elements
8.6 Typical causes of error
8.7 CT-Modeler functions
8.8 Yoshikawa's categorization of the evolution of technical knowledge

9.1 Matrix classification scheme for RP machines
9.2 Two approaches to the strategy for imaging a layer
9.3 Machines that use lasers and optical imaging
9.4 The simplest configuration of a laser mirror system
9.5 Spot size changes across the vat in galvo system unless flat field optics are used
9.6 Turning laser full on results in scan vector wider at the beginning and end
9.7 Systems with lasers
9.8 A laser/mirror system with a beam expander in the optical path
9.9 Recoating methods in laser photolithography
9.10 Machines with all-mechanical imaging systems

10.1 Investment casting process description
10.2 Investment casting process description (cont'd.)
10.3 Investment casting process description (cont'd.)
10.4 CAD solid model, ceramic shell with QuickCast pattern, QuickCast pattern
10.5 CAD solid model, SLS polycarbonate pattern, A356 aluminum casting

11.1 The Fraunhofer integrated information model for rapid prototyping
11.2 Scanned point cloud model and solid model from scanned data
11.3 QFD approach to selecting most appropriate RP technology
11.4 Stereolithography mold cavity and core from ICT
11.5 Tooling for injection molding produced by FDM and electroplating at IFAM
11.6 Rapid prototyping of EDM electrodes for forge dies
11.7 Laser 3D patterns for Dassault air conditioning ducts
11.8 Dassault mold inserts from Laser 3D master patterns
11.9 Injection molding metal tool produced by DTM machine
11.10 How RP models are used in Japan to make molds and forming tools
11.11 Teijin Seiki filled resin mold to create an ABS phone housing component
11.12 Use of Kira LOM patterns for molds
11.13 Kira KSC-50 machine and its associated dimensions and specifications
11.14 Model of a sheet metal die from Tokuda Industries
11.15 Tokuda's steps to improve staircasing surface finish
11.16 Time and cost comparison of Kira LOM to CNC machining
11.17 Makeup of rapid prototyping activities at INCS
11.18 Brass connector made by plaster casting at INCS
11.19 Plaster casting process for rapid metal tooling.

12.1 CT section of a skull
12.2 Thresholding results in edgel definition
12.3 Osteotomy planning of reconstruction for Goldenhar syndrome patient
12.4 Cranial trauma modeled ... along with biocompatible insert

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Published: March 1997; WTEC Hyper-Librarian