It is essential that this chapter be prefaced with the note that the subject of this chapter was initially not considered as being of sufficient importance to warrant a separate chapter in the report. However, it turned out to be the important point of difference between new developments in the U.S. and those in Japan. Although it was known to some in the panel that the Japanese composites community had been making strong overtures to the civil engineering area over the past five years, the magnitude of their commitment to this new and emerging market was simply not comprehended. This chapter thus is intended to only briefly touch upon the subject, as a full and comprehensive treatment would be beyond the scope of the present report. This should, however, be in no way construed to suggest that the study did not unearth a large body of useful information; rather the amount was so large that it was viewed as being overwhelming for the overall report.