This chapter begins with a discussion of the relevance of the aerospace component of composites manufacturing technology. This is followed by a review of current global events that affect the aerospace industry, and in turn, composites technology. The body of the chapter reviews various aerospace applications of composites in both the United States and Japan. Cultural differences between the two countries are noted where they affect the approach to applied research, product development, and product manufacturing. For concluding remarks, a discussion is included on such key items as technology transfer, international collaboration, and partnerships and joint ventures, which are the keys for advancement and the expansion of composites technology and business in the context of growing economic globalization and the development of a borderless economy.