No research is currently supported by the BERAPD program that meets the description of nanotechnology as employed in the WTEC study. The program does support biomedical research where smaller and smaller tools (sensors, manipulators, imaging devices, surgical instruments) are required. The following awards illustrate the BES focus:
- BES 9158507. Presidential Young Investigators Award (Response of cartilage to external mechanical forces). Development of microtools. Martha Gray, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
- BES 9501793. CAREER Award (Microsystems for least-invasive medicine). Michael C. Murphy, Louisiana State University.
- BES 9520501. Cost-Reducing Health Care Technology Award (Image-guided percutaneous robotic assisted therapy). James H. Anderson, Johns Hopkins University.
- BES 9632962. Efficacy of a neural interface for limb prosthesis (micro sensor and coaxial cable). Michael Zanakis, New York Institute of Technology.
- BES 9509758. Design and evaluation of artificial retina device to benefit visually impaired. Wental Liu, North Carolina State University.
- BES 9521719. International workshop: Robotics and computer-assisted medical interventions. Takeo Kanade, Carnegie Mellon University.
Results from the International Workshop (#6 above) were especially useful for our program planning in this area. The BERAPD Program has taken a first step toward encouraging activities in nanotechnology by indicating it as an area of specific interest in the new program brochure, "Exploratory investigations of nanoscale and microscale biological, chemical, and physical phenomena for the development of new health care technologies for minimally invasive applications in medical diagnosis and therapy."