This site is designed to present up-to-date sources of information on nanotechnology in the following areas: major research centers, funding agencies, major reports and books. Each component has been carefully reviewed and selected. This site is expected to grow with the continued support and updates from those organizations and individuals working in the field. The summaries which appear were taken directly from each of their respective sites.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTERS ON NANOTECHNOLOGY
|| Academic | Industry | National Laboratories | Submit your center ||
FUNDING and SPONSORING AGENCIES and SOCIETIES
|| Government Agencies | Professional Societies and Non-Profit Organizations ||
MAJOR RESEARCH REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS
|| Books | Periodicals | Submit your publication ||
|| Electronics | Nanodevices | Nanostructures | Research | Theory ||
Arizona State University
Georgia Institute of Technology
"The nanostructure research group is located at the School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta Georgia. The main focus of the groups deals with the synthesis and characterization of nanometer scale crystalline molecules (nanocrystals), or what has been coined as highly oriented molecular (Au, Ag) nanocrystalline arrays (HOMANA's). Research into the properties of nanometer-scale single crystallites has recently matured into a field that is both fundamental and wide-ranging, although a major source of motivation arises from certain natural phenomena and from technological questions concerning ultimate limits on the miniaturization of solid-state device elements. Theoretical modelling, or simulations, are critical in establishing ideas and models for the structural, processing, and other properties of nanocrystals; supercomputer-based simulations are carried out in association with the Georgia Tech Center for Computational Materials Science. Synthesis of the nanomolecules is achieved both by liquid phase and aerosol techniques. Characterization is currently being done by high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) at the Georgia Tech Center for High Resolution Electron Microscopy. Small and large angle x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning probe microscopy (SPM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), IR and UV-vis spectroscopy, and laser desorption (LD) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry are among the other characterization tools being used for structural analysis."
Iowa State University
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Middle Tennessee State University
"The Materials Theory and Molecular Design Project at Middle Tennessee State University is led by Dr. Preston J. MacDougall, Assistant Professor of Chemistry. The goal of the project is to develop computational tools for the design of nanoelectronic devices and bioactive molecules. The tools that are being developed couple state-of-the-art ab initio computational chemistry techniques with model-independent methods of analysis. These methods are largely based on the electron density, observable in either position space or momentum space. Thus the tools are also applicable to precise experimental measurements of electron densities.
For More Information Contact Dr. MacDougall
New Jersey Institute Of Technology
"Artificial dielectrics are described as small particles embedded in a dielectric host. As the particulate size is reduced to nanometer size, the composite material exhibits nonlinear optical properties that may be attributed to cluster-cluster or cluster-host material interaction. The research in our laboratory is focussed on understanding the origin of large nonlinearities and role of quantum confinement and proximity effects. Experiments are being performed in the uv, visible, near and far infra-red as well as sub-mm wavelength regions."
New York University
North Carolina State University
Contact Dr. Chris Gorman, Assistant Professor, for information regarding the synthesis of new nanoscale objects and their nanomanipulation using scanned probe microscopies.
Pennsylvania State University
Technische Universitat Berlin
Contact Dr. David Walt, Robinson Professor of Chemistry, for information regarding nanosensors and nanostructures.
University of California at Berkeley
"Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, have developed a new nano-positioning device using a linear force actuator. Demonstration results show this invention provides a very accurate and precise positioning for various motion range, with a low-cost configuration. The main applications are in the field of high precision photolithography for the semiconductor industry. A US patent was issued for this invention, and the University is now seeking a commercial company who may be interested in licensing this technology."
University of California, Riverside
"My laboratory has developed novel procedures for the synthesis of nanocrystalline semiconductors using biomolecular capping materials. Processes for isolation of uniformly-sizes particles have also been developed. We plan to use these materials, among other things, in photo-degradation of organic contaminants and certain medical applications."
University of Chicago
University of Connecticut
University of Delaware
University of Glasgow
University of Hamburg
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
University of Lausanne
University of Newcastle
University of Texas at Austin
University of Tokyo
University of Toronto
"We are Canada's first centre for nanotechnology, based at the University of Toronto. We are focusing on nanofabrication of nanelectronic and nanophotonic materials and devices. Our interests are primarily in the areas of compound semiconductors and silicon, although we have some research being conducted in the centre on organic template materials in our self-assembly program. Another key aspect of our research is our strong emphasis on simulation work. This includes transport and optical property modeling, nanodevice modeling, modeling of cellular automata, modeling of processes occuring at the nanoscale and that determine the evolution of nanostructures. We are funded at the multimillion dollar level, with contributions from Federal and Provincial governments, as well as from private sector partners. Although we have strong links to the international community, we continuously seek to establish further ties with researchers and companies in the field. The centre has a unique blende of facilities and capabilities, and working in conjunction with its members, is able to compete globally in the field."
University of Washington
"The Center for Nanotechnology was establish as part of the University of Washington's Initiative fund awards for 1997, which emphasizes a campus-wide interdisciplinary approach to intellectual and educational paths, while strengthening undergraduate and graduate education, extending the scope of research, and proving a new approach to public service as one way of blazing a trail to the future. The Center's main force is a marriage of physical, life, and engineering sciences, all in which the University of Washington has broad strength."
Washington State University
Air Force Office of Scientific Research
"AFOSR manages all basic research conducted by the U.S. Air Force. One of the tools we use to accomplish this task is to solicit proposals for research through a general Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) and a number of specialized BAAs. AFOSR invites proposals for basic research in several broad areas, which include physics, solid mechanics and structures, chemistry, mathematics and computer sciences, and electronics."
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
"The Ultra Electronics program offers a platform for advanced microelectronics research in support of nanoelectronic technologies. The goals of the Ultra Electronics program are to explore and develop material, processing technologies, quantum and conventional devices and device architectures for a next generation of information processing systems and subsystems."
Department of Commerce
"The Department of Commerce performs a wide range of Government functions requiring the collection and dissemination of scientific, technical, economic and, in some cases, personal information."
Department of Energy
"The Department of Energy is a leading science and technology agency whose research supports our nation's energy security, national security, environmental quality, and contributes to a better quality of life for all Americans."
"The IPT at NASA Ames has been set up in the Fall of 1996 to conduct basic research in:Computational device physics, Nanotechnology, Computational and Experimental Chemistry in Materials Processing, and Process / Equipment modeling. The objective is to conduct innovative research in the above areas utilizing Ames' traditional strengths in computational sciences and meet NASA's long term mission needs."
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
"The NIH mission is to uncover new knowledge that will lead to better health for everyone. NIH works toward that mission by: conducting research in its own laboratories; supporting the research of non-Federal scientists in universities, medical schools, hospitals, and research institutions throughout the country and abroad; helping in the training of research investigators; and fostering communication of biomedical information."
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
"The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), formerly the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), was established by Congress in 1901 to support industry, commerce, scientific institutions, and all branches of Government. For nearly 100 years the NIST/NBS laboratories have worked with industry and government to advance measurement science and develop standards."
Naval Research Laboratory (NRL)
"The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is the Navy's corporate research and development laboratory, created in 1923 by Congress for the Department of the Navy on the advice of Thomas Edison. Investigations have ranged widely from monitoring the sun's behavior, to analyzing marine atmospheric conditions, to measuring parameters of the deep oceans, to exploring the outermost regions of space."
National Science Foundation (NSF)
"The National Science Foundation funds research and education in science and engineering. It does this through grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements to more than 2,000 colleges, universities, and other research and/or education institutions in all parts of the United States. The Foundation accounts for about 20 percent of federal support to academic institutions for basic research.
Each year, NSF receives approximately 30,000 new or renewal support proposals for research, graduate and postdoctoral fellowships, and math/science/engineering education projects; it makes approximately 9,000 new awards. These typically go to universities, colleges, academic consortia, nonprofit institutions, and small businesses.
The agency operates no laboratories itself but does support National Research Centers, certain oceanographic vessels, and Antarctic research stations. The Foundation also supports cooperative research between universities and industry and U.S. participation in international scientific efforts."
Office of Naval Research (ONR)
"The Office of Naval Research (ONR) coordinates, executes, and promotes the science and technology programs of the United States Navy and Marine Corps through universities, government laboratories, and nonprofit and for-profit organizations. It provides technical advice to the Chief of Naval Operations and the Secretary of the Navy, works with industry to improve technology manufacturing processes while reducing fleet costs, and fosters continuing academic interest in naval relevant science from the high school through post-doctoral levels."
U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL)
"The U.S. Army Research Laboratory executes fundamental and applied research to provide the Army the key technologies and analytical support necessary to assure supremacy in future land warfare."
California Molecular Electronics Corporation (CALMEC)
"California Molecular Electronics Corporation (CALMEC) is a new company dedicated to the advancement and commercial development of the field of Molecular Electronics. The Company is developing important intellectual property in this emerging field with an aim to accelerate its advancement from concept to reality. Included in the Company's patent portfolio is the Chiropticene Switch, the first practical molecular switch with applications in many fields including computation, telecommunications, and imaging."
"Opening new frontiers for computing sometimes means looking in places where we cannot see anything... at least with the naked eye. IBM Research teams are hard at work on projects on the tiniest scale, exploring the manipulation of materials - and even data -- at the atomic level. These tiny marvels are bringing new advances for fields such as computer storage technology."
IBM's Zurich Research Laboratory
"IBM's Zurich Research Laboratory is the European branch of IBM Research and is located in Rüschlikon, Switzerland. Our activities are an integral part of IBM Research's overall strategy, and are conducted in our three scientific departments: Communication Systems, IT Solutions, and Science & Technology."
Molecular Manufacturing Enterprises Incorporated (MMEI)
"Molecular Manufacturing Enterprises, Incorporated (MMEI) was founded to help accelerate advancements in the field of molecular nanotechnology. Molecular nanotechnology involves manipulating structures with atomic precision. By working at a molecular level in a directed fashion, tremendous advantages are possible over any manufacturing methods currently available."
"Formed in 1993, Nanogen has developed technology that integrates advanced microelectronics and molecular biology on proprietary semiconductor microchips. The technology has broad commercial applications in biomedical research, medical diagnostics, genomics research, genetic testing and drug discovery. It also is potentially applicable to environmental, industrial and agricultural analyses. Nanogen's technology uses active microelectronics to move and concentrate charged molecules to designated test sites on the semiconductor microchip. The ability to concentrate and move molecules electronically provides unique advantages of flexibility, speed, accuracy and efficiency, including:
*Significant acceleration of molecular binding greatly speeding reaction times. *Multiplexing, or simultaneous analysis of multiple test results from a single sample. *Open architecture design allowing microchip arrays to be customized easily and quickly by end-users, providing enhanced flexibility. *Cost effectiveness from high volume, affordable, customizable microchip design. *High accuracy from the ability to precisely manipulate molecules electronically and to perform automatic stringency quality checks. *Wide applicability to charged molecules.Nanogen's semiconductor technology has been developed as a versatile integrated, automated system. The Company believes initial applications focusing on molecular identification and analysis will accelerate development of products that capitalize on the increasing availability of genetic information and its potential to transform human healthcare. The Company believes the planned initial use of the Nanogen system in leading research institutions will enable top researchers to apply the technology to current tasks such as DNA analysis. In addition, the open architecture design will enable researchers to develop additional novel applications. Nanogen is also pursuing collaborations with corporate partners to develop its technology for a number of applications, allowing the Company to accelerate commercialization with leading industry players while retaining opportunities to independently pursue applications outside the scope of these agreements. Strategic collaborations with Becton Dickinson for infectious disease diagnosis, Èlan for genomics analyses and Hoechst AG (through a subsidiary) for drug discovery are already underway."
"A private corporation.
Nanophase Technologies Corporation
"The origin of Nanophase can be traced back to research performed during the 1980s at Argonne National Laboratory, a U.S. Department of Energy facility. Interested in studying the properties of nanocrystalline materials, researchers at Argonne conceived a unique process to fabricate them. This process, commonly referred to today as gas phase condensation, could produce small quantities of materials with unique characteristics. Besides their sizes being measured in nanometers, the particles were of high purity, had no residual surface contaminants, were spherical, and were non-porous. Convinced that these materials were commercially important and that gas phase condensation could be scaled to produce them in large quantities at reasonable cost, Argonne scientist Dr. Richard Siegel founded Nanophase in 1989."
NanoPowders Industries (NPI)
"NanoPowders Industries (NPI) is an outstanding young company in the field of precious metal powders and flakes that is producing silver powder and other special alloy powders for the electronics components."
Nanotechnology Development Corporation
"Report on nanotechnology - covers the whole field of research, including molecular nanotechnology, micromachining, biological and chemical approaches, nanolithography etc. It describes the basic science behind each area of research before analysing the prospects for each field... it is one of the first reports to cover the entire field at a reasonably detailed scientific level. It is around 40,000 words in length."
Author: Dr. David Howie, CEO, Oxford Nanotechnology
Xerox Palo Alto Reasearch Center (PARC)
"The Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) performs pioneering research that covers a broad spectrum of research fields ranging from electronic materials and device research through computer-based systems and software, to research into work practices and technologies in use. The center's mission is to pursue those technologies that relate to Xerox's current and emerging businesses. PARC has contributed to user interfaces, electronic components, embedded software and architectures for each new line of Xerox copiers, printers and systems reprographics products."
"Zyvex's goal is to build one of the key pieces of molecular nanotechnology; the assembler. The term assembler is fuzzy and should be more clearly defined. In our context, nanomanufacturing plant might be a better definition. This is a system of unspecified size (possibly quite large), capable of manufacturing bulk materials or arbitrary structures with atomic precision, getting nearly every atom in the desired place. It probably performs its task by doing mechanochemistry, which is a chemical reaction helped over its normal reaction barriers by mechanical force. Another possibility is positional electrochemistry, which overcomes the reaction barriers by careful use of electric charge. Examining some steps towards this goal, we can observe that a semiconductor manufacturing plant manufactures arbitrarily complex structures (with restricted chemical compounds), but lacks atomic precision. Bacteria are atomically precise, self-replicating manufacturing plants which manufacture substances with atomic precision. They can even be genetically engineered to manufacture certain novel compounds, but cannot make arbitrary structures. The Zyvex assembler differs from both in that it operates on some atomically precise molecular building blocks to build precise structures of arbitrary complexity, as specified by a CAD/CAM program. This first assembler can be a crude device; its purpose is to show that molecular nanotechnology is feasible, and to start the field on a Moore's law type of learning curve. Moore's "law" is an observation by Gordon Moore of Intel that because we learn how to improve the density of silicon circuits in each hardware generation, the number of transistors in a microprocessor can double every 18 months. A related concept is the semiconductor "learning curve", where the cost of making something goes down as the manufacturing process matures and process variables are more carefully controlled."
Ames Laboratory Condensed Matter Physics Group (Department of Energy)
"Scientists in this wide-ranging program are experts in the synthesis, characterization and modeling of new materials. High-Tc superconductors, fullerenes, magneto-optic materials, and quasicrystals are the focal point for new synthesis methods and for characterization measurements using NMR, photoemission, Auger spectroscopy, high temperature x-ray, and neutron scattering techniques. Scientific initiatives include the design and demonstration of photonic band gap crystals, a geometrical arrangement of dielectric materials that allows light to pass except when the frequency falls within a forbidden range. These materials would make it easier to develop numerous practical devices, including optical lasers, optical computers, and solar cells."
Argonne National Laboratory
"Argonne National Laboratory is one of the U.S. Department of Energy's largest research centers. It is also the nation's first national laboratory, chartered in 1946. Today, the laboratory has about 4,500 employees, including about 1,775 scientists and engineers, of whom about 800 hold doctorate degrees. Argonne's annual operating budget of about $470 million supports more than 200 research projects, ranging from studies of the atomic nucleus to global climate change research. Since 1990, Argonne has worked with more than 600 companies and numerous federal agencies and other organizations. Argonne occupies two sites. The Illinois site is surrounded by forest preserve about 25 miles southwest of Chicago's Loop. About 3,600 of Argonne's 4,500 employees work on the site's 1,700 wooded acres. The site also houses the U.S. Department of Energy's Chicago Operations Office."
Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology (CARB)
"The 40,000 square-foot facility that houses CARB was designed to meet the specific needs of the biotechnology community in the field of protein structure, function, and design. Scientists from the Biotechnology Division of the Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory of NIST and the University of Maryland have come together to conduct research programs in structural and physical biochemistry and molecular biology. CARB, with sophisticated state-of-the-art instrumentation, provides an exceptional environment for training graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in fields critical to the future of biotechnology. CARB offers a Visiting Scientists Program that allows researchers from industrial, academic, and governmental laboratories to work at the facility for extended periods."
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
"Fermilab is a U.S. Department of Energy national laboratory for research exploring the fundamental nature of matter and energy."
Idaho National Engineering & Environmental Laboratory (INEEL)
"Management and operation of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is the responsibility of private contractors working under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company is the prime contractor at the INEEL. Two other contractors, The University of Chicago and Westinghouse Electric Corp., operate Argonne National Laboratory West and report to DOE's Chicago Operations Office and the Pittsburgh Naval Reactors Office, respectively. Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company's vision for the INEEL is to be and be recognized as the leader in environmental management; nuclear materials disposition; research, applied engineering and systems integration; and the transfer of derived use energy and environmental technologies."
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
"Working with industry, academia, and other partners is important at Lawrence Laboratory. Partnerships and collaborations help us accomplish our programmatic goals more efficiently and cost effectively. We work with others to share expertise or make available research capabilities. We strive to be known as a center for science and technology and will provide wide access to the Laboratory's experimental facilities and staff."
Los Alamos National Laboratory
"Los Alamos lab, located with the town of Los Alamos approximately 35 miles northwest of Santa Fe, occupies 43 square miles of land in Northern New Mexico. Owned by the Department of Energy, Los Alamos has been managed by the University of California since 1943, when the Laboratory was born as part of the Manhattan Project to create the first atomic weapons during World War II."
NanoStructures Laboratory (MIT)
"The NanoStructures Laboratory (NSL) at MIT develops techniques for fabricating surface structures with feature sizes in the range from nanometers to micrometers, and uses these structures in a variety of research projects. The NSL includes facilities for lithography (photo, interferometric, electron beam, and x-ray), etching (chemical, plasma and reactive-ion), liftoff, electroplating, sputter deposition and e-beam evaporation."
Nadrian C. Seeman's Laboratory (NYU)
"Our laboratory is investigating unusual DNA molecules in model systems that use synthetic molecules. Our interest in these molecules was originally stimulated by a desire to characterize Holliday junctions. These are four-arm branched DNA molecules that are found to be structural Intermediates in Genetic Recombination. The focus of the work on these unusual molecules is to characterize their structure, dynamics and thermodynamics, and to establish the relationship between these properties and their biological function."
Nanostructure Laboratory (Princeton University)
"The mission of NanoStructures Laboratory (NSL) is to explore and develop: new nanotechnologies that will fabricate structures substantially smaller, better, and cheaper than current technology permits, as well as innovative nanoscale electronic, optoelectronic, and magnetic devices by combining cutting-edge nanotechnology with frontier knowledge from different disciplines."
Sandia National Laboratories
"Sandia is a national security laboratory operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by the Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Co. We design all non-nuclear components for the nation's nuclear weapons, perform a wide variety of energy research and development projects, and work on assignments that respond to national security threats -- both military and economic. We encourage and seek partnerships with appropriate U.S. industry and government groups to collaborate on emerging technologies that support our mission."
Thermal Spray Lab (TSL)
American Association for the Advancement of Science
"The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS, pronounced "Triple-A-S") is a nonprofit professional society dedicated to the advancement of scientific and technological excellence across all disciplines, and to the public's understanding of science and technology. AAAS is among the oldest societies in America, having been founded in Philadelphia in 1848. Many of today's most prestigious and influential scientific societies have their historical origins in AAAS. For example, groups such as the American Chemical Society (1876), the American Anthropological Association (1902), and the Botanical Society of America (1906), all grew out of informal gatherings at AAAS annual meetings or from established AAAS Sections."
American Institute of Physics
"The mission of the Public Information Division is to promote public understanding and appreciation of physics and to facilitate communication between physicists, policymakers and the public."
American Physical Society
"The American Physical Society is an organization of more than 40,000 physicists worldwide. Since its formation in 1899, it has been dedicated to the advancement and diffusion of the knowledge of physics. The APS publishes some of the world's leading physics research journals: the Physical Review series, Physical Review Letters, and Reviews of Modern Physics. The APS organizes scientific meetings where new results are reported and discussed. In addition to these primary functions, the Society has many other programs in areas such as education, international affairs, public affairs and public information."
"ASM International is the society for materials professionals, a worldwide network dedicated to advancing industry, technology, and applications of metals and materials. Through the efforts and involvement of our members, ASM develops and distributes timely, useful, reliable technical information through electronic media, publications, conferences, training programs, and chapter activities."
Disclaimer: The opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in the linked web sites are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United States government or Loyola College.