Appendix F. Glossary

2DEG
2-dimensional electron gas

A/D
Analog to digital
AAAR
American Association for Aerosol Research
ADC
Analog-digital converter
AEM
Analytical electron microscopy
AFM
Atomic force microscope/microscopy
AFOSR
Air Force Office of Scientific Research
AIST
(Japan) Agency of Industrial Science and Technology
AIST
(Japan, MITI) Agency of Industrial Science and Technology
AMLCD
Active matrix liquid crystal display
AMM
Amorphous microporous mixed (oxides)
AMO
Atomic, molecular, and optical
AMR
Anisotropic magnetoresistance
ARO
(U.S.) Army Research Office
ARPES
Angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy
ASET
(Japan) Association of Super-Advanced Electronics Technologies
ASTC
Australia Science and Technology Council
ATP
(Japan) Angstrom Technology Partnership
ATP
Adenosine triphosphate

B
Magnetic flux density
B/H loop
Closed figure showing B (magnetic flux density) compared to H (magnetic field strength) in a magnetizable material-also called hysteresis loop
bcc
Body-centered cubic
BMBF
(Germany) Ministry of Education, Science, Research, and Technology (formerly called BMFT)
BOD-FF
Bond-order-dependent force field
BRITE/EURAM
Basic Research of Industrial Technologies for Europe, European Research on Advanced Materials program

CAD
Computer-assisted design
CAIBE
Chemically assisted ion beam etching
CBE
Chemical beam epitaxy
CBED
Convergent beam electron diffraction
cermet
Ceramic/metal composite
CIP
Cold isostatic press
CMOS
Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor
CMP
Chemical mechanical polishing
CMR
Colossal magnetoresistance
CNRS
(France) Centre National de la Récherche Scientifique
CNSF
China National Science Foundation
CRMD
Centre de Recherche sur la Matire Divise (part of CNRS, France)
CRT
Cathode ray tube
CSM
Covalent shell model
CVD
Chemical vapor deposition
CVI
Chemical vapor infiltration

D/A
Digital to analog
DARPA
(U.S.) Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
DM
Deutsche mark
DOC
(U.S.) Department of Commerce
DOD
(U.S.) Department of Defense
DOE
(U.S.) Department of Energy
DSC
Differential scanning calorimetry

e-beam
Electron-beam (lithography, etc.)
EC
Evaporation/condensation generators
EC
European Community (or Commission)
ECAMI
European-Canadian Mesoscopic Initiative
ECNM
European Consortium on NanoMaterials
ECU
European currency unit
EDX(S)
Energy-dispersive X-ray (spectroscopy)
EELS
Electron energy loss spectroscopy
EM
Electromagnetic
ENEA
(Italy) National Agency for Energy, Environment and New Technologies
EPFL
(Switzerland) École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
EPSRC
(U.K.) Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
ERATO
(Japan) Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology Program
ERC
(U.S., University of Illinois) Engineering Research Center on Microelectronics
ESCA
Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis
ESPRIT
European Commission's information technologies program
ESR
Electron spin resonance
esu
Electrostatic unit
ETL
(Japan) Electrotechnical Laboratory
ETRI
(Korea) Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
EUSPEN
European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology
EXAFS
Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy

fcc
Face centered cubic
FCRA
(Japan) Fine Ceramics Research Association
FE
Field emission
FEG-TEM
Field-emission gun - transmission electron microscope
FET
Field effect transistor
FE-TEM
Field-emission transmission electron microscope/microscopy
FETs
Field-effect transistors
FF
Force field
FFr
French franc
FIB
Focused ion beam
FIFO
First in - first out
FIM
Field-ion microscope/microscopy
FM
Ferromagnetic
FOA
(Sweden) National Defense Research Institute
FPMD
First-principles molecular dynamics
FzK
(Germany) Forschungzentrum Karlsruhe

GC/MS
Gas chromotograph mass spectroscopy
GDS-DFT
Gaussian dual space density functional theory
GIC
Graphite intercalated composites
GMR
Giant magnetoresistance
GP
Guinier-Preston
GPC
Gas phase condensation
GPS
Global Positioning System
GSMBE
Gas source molecular beam epitaxy
GVB
Generalized valence bond

HBFF
Hessian-based force field
Hc
Coercivity
HDDR
Hydrogenation disproportionation desorption recombination
HDS
Hydrodesulfurization
HFET
Heterojunction field effect transistor
HIP
Hot isostatic press
HMDS
Hexamethyl-disilazane
HOPG
Highly oriented pyrolitic graphic
HP
(U.S.) Hewlett-Packard
HPHT
High pressure/high temperature
HPLC
High performance liquid chromatography
HREM
High resolution electron microscope/microscopy
HRTEM
High resolution transmission electron microscope (see also HREM)
HTc
High superconducting transition temperature

i.d.
Inner diameter
IC
(France) Institut Curie
IC
Integrated circuit
icd
internal coordinate dynamics
IGC
Inert gas condensation
IMEC
(Belgium) Interuniversity MicroElectronics Center
IP
Ionization potential
IPE
(Switzerland) Institute of Experimental Physics at EPFL
IR
Infrared
ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network
ITO
Indium tin oxide
I-V
Current-voltage

JFCC
(Japan) Japan Fine Ceramic Center
JIM
Japanese Institute of Metals
JRCAT
(Japan) Joint Research Center for Atom Technology
JSPS
Japan Society for the Promotion of Science

K
Degrees kelvin
KOH
Potassium hydroxide
KTH
(Sweden) Royal Institute of Technology

LCD
Liquid crystal display
LCT
Liquid crystal templating
LCVP
Laser-induced chemical vapor precipitation
LED
Light-emitting diode
LIGA
(German acronym) Lithographie, Galvanoformung, Abformung
LINK
(U.K.) nanotechnology programme
LPPCVD
Laser particle precipitation-aided chemical vapor deposition
LSI
Large scale integration/integrated (circuits)
LTMC
Layered transition metal chalcogenide

MA
Mechanical alloying
MBE
Molecular beam epitaxy
mCP
Microcontact printing
MD
Molecular dynamics
MEL-ARI
(Europe, ESPRIT) Microelectronics Advanced Research Initiative
MEMS
Microelectromechanical systems
MFM
Magnetic force microscopy
microSQUID
Micro-superconducting quantum interference device
MIMIC
Micromolding in capillaries
MITI
(Japan) Ministry of International Trade and Industry
MOCVD
Metal organic chemical vapor deposition
Monbusho
(Japan) Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, and Culture
MOS
Metal oxide semiconductor
MOSFET
Metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor
MOVPE
Metal organic vapor phase epitaxy
MPI
(Germany) Max Planck Institute(s)
MRAM
Magnetic random access memory
MR-CI
Multireference configuration interaction
MRI
Magnetic resonance imaging
MSC
(U.S., California Institute of Technology) Materials and Process Simulation Center
MTJ
Magnetic tunnel junction
mTM
Microtransfer molding
MWNT
Multiwalled nanotube

NAIR
(Japan) National Institute for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research
NASA
(U.S.) National Aeronautic and Space Administration
nc
Nanocrystalline
NCA
Nanoparticle chain aggregate
NCAP
Nematic curvilinear aligned phase material
NCCE
(U.S., NSF) National Center for Computational Electronics
NDL
(Taiwan) National Nano Device Laboratories
NEDO
(Japan) New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization
NEIMO
Newton-Euler inverse mass operator method for modeling
NEMD
Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics
NEOME
(Switzerland) Network for Excellence on Organic Materials for Electronics
NFR
(Sweden) Natural Sciences Research Council
NIH
(U.S.) National Institutes of Health
NION
(U.K.) National Initiative on Nanotechnology
NIRIM
(Japan) National Institute for Research in Inorganic Materials
NIST
(U.S.) National Institute of Standards and Technology
NMR
Nuclear magnetic resonance
NNUN
(U.S.) National Nanofabrication Users Network
NOR
not or (used in logic circuits)
NRC
(Canada, also Australia) National Research Council
NRIM
(Japan) National Research Institute for Metals
NRL
(U.S.) Naval Research Laboratory
NSF
(U.S.) National Science Foundation
NSOM
Near-field scanning optical microscope/microscopy
NSS
Nanoscale systems
NUTEK
(Sweden) National Board for Industrial and Technological Development

o.d.
Outer diameter
OECD
(Int'l.) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
OLED
Organic light-emitting device
OMBE
Organic molecular beam epitaxy
ONR
(U.S.) Office of Naval Research

PAN
Polyacrylonitrile
PB
Polybutadiene
PBC
Periodic boundary conditions
PCD
Polycrystalline diamond
PCR
Polymerase chain reaction
PDLC
Polymer-dispersed liquid crystals
PDMS
Polydimethylsiloxane
PHANTOMS
(Europe) program to investigate physics and technology of mesoscale systems
PL
Photoluminescence
PMMA
Polymethylmethacrylate
p-n junctions
Positive-negative
PoSAP
position-sensitive atom-probe
PS
Polystyrene
PS-GVB
Psuedospectral generalized valence bond
PVD
Physical vapor deposition
PVDF
Poly(vinylidene fluoride)

QCA
Quantum cellular automata
QCL
Quantum cascade lasers
QD or Q-dot
Quantum dot
QEq
Charge equilibration
QM
Quantum mechanics/mechanical
QUEST
(U.S.) Center for Quantized Electronic Structures, UCSB

rf
Radio frequency
RCMM
Reduced cell multipole method
redox
Reduction-oxidation
RGB
Red, green, blue
RHEED
Reflection high energy electron diffraction
RIE
Reactive ion etching
RIKEN
(Japan, STA) Institute of Physical and Chemical Research
RT
Room temperature
RTD
Resonant tunneling diode

SAM
Self-assembled monolayer
SAMIM
Solvent-assisted microcontact molding
SAW
Surface acoustic wave device
SAXS
Small angle X-ray scattering
SBIR
(U.S.) Small Business for Innovative Research program
SED
Single electron device
SELETE
(Japan) Semiconductor Leading Edge Technologies, Inc. (consortium)
SEM
Scanning electron microscope/microscopy
Sematech
(U.S.) Semiconductor Manufacturing and Technology Institute
SEMPA
Scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis
SEP
Size-dependent evolutionary pattern
SET
Single-electron transistor
SFM
Scanning force microscopy/microscope
SFr
Swiss franc
SIMS
Secondary ion mass spectrometry
SINQ
(Switzerland) Spallation Neutron Source
SIRI
(Japan) Semiconductor Industry Research Institute
SMM
Scanning Maxwell-stress Microscope
SNOM
Scanning near-field optical microscopy
SOI
Silicon on insulator
SOQD
Self-organized quantum dot
SPC
Statistical process control
SPD
Superplastic deformation
SPM
Scanning probe microscopy
SQUID
Superconducting quantum interference device
SRC
(U.S.) Semiconductor Research Corporation
SRRC
(Taiwan) Synchrotron Radiation Research Center
STA
(Japan) Science and Technology Agency
STARC
(Japan) Semiconductor Technology Academic Research Center
STEM
Scanning transmission electron microscope/microscopy
STM
Scanning tunneling microscope/microscopy
STN
Super twisted nematic
STTR
(U.S.) Small Business Technology Transfer program
SUNY
(U.S.) State University of New York
SWNT
Single-walled nanotubes

T
tesla
TBC
Thermal barrier coating
TCR
Temperature coefficient of resistivity
TEM
Transmission electron microscope/microscopy
TFR
(Sweden) Research Council for Engineering Sciences
TFT
Thin film transistors
TM
Melting temperature
TMS
Tech molecular sieves; family of transition metal oxides
TMV
Trapped magnetization vortice
TSR
Tetrahedral shaped recess

UFF
Universal force field
UFP
Ultrafine particle
UHV
Ultrahigh vacuum
UHV CVD
Ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition
UHV-FE-SEM
Ultrahigh vacuum field emission scanning electron microscope
UHV STM
Ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscope
ULSI
Ultra large scale integration/integrated (circuit)

VC
Vanadium-carbon
VCSELs
Vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers
VLSI
Very large scale integration/integrated (circuit)

WC/Co
Tungsten carbide/cobalt
WTEC
World Technology Division of the International Technology Research Institute at Loyola College, Baltimore, MD

XAS
X-ray absorption spectroscopy
XPS
X-ray photoemission spectroscopy
XRD
X-ray diffraction

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Published: September 1999; WTEC Hyper-Librarian