R.A. Andrievski
Institute for New Chemical Problems
Russian Academy of Sciences
Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, 142432, Russia
fax: (095) 742-0004
e-mail: ara@incp.ac.ru

The topic of nanostructured materials (NM) is now very popular in the world as well as in Russia. The great attention to NM has occurred for at least two reasons. First, researchers hope to realize the unique mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of the nanocrystalline (NC) state and therefore achieve enhanced material performance properties as well. Second, researchers plan to fill the many gaps not only in the understanding of this state, but also in realizing its technological promise. The known results of Gleiter and his associates (Birringer et al. 1986) have had an important impact on NM research and development. But this impact has been anticipated by many years of study in the fields of ultrafine powders (UFP), colloids, clusters, dusts, metal strengthening, metallic glasses, films, catalysts, etc. All these scientific directions have developed intensively in the countries of the former Soviet Union and in Russia in particular. It is possible to list many fundamental Russian books devoted to these problems that are not always well known to Western scientists (e.g., Natanson 1959, Palatnik et al. 1972, Morokhov et al. 1977, Frishberg et al. 1978, Skorokhod et al. 1979, Tsvetkov and Pamfilov 1980, Ievlev et al. 1982, Morokhov et al. 1984, Nepiyko 1985, Tananaev 1987, Kalamazov et al. 1988, Andrievski 1991, Ievlev 1992, and Trofimov et al. 1993). So the current studies have a good base. Nevertheless, there are known difficulties in conducting R&D in Russia and in this connection, international cooperation is very desirable.

NM can be classified into three groups: particulate materials, materials obtained by controlled crystallization from the amorphous state, and materials obtained from films (Andrievski 1998). Using these classifications, the remainder of this presentation will describe the main research groups in the field of NM in Russia (see the list of acronyms for the various institutes in the appendix section of this paper, p. 42).

  1. Particulate Materials: Practically all physical and chemical methods for the preparation of metallic and nonmetallic UFP are studied in Russia and in some other republics of the New Independent States (NIS): the reduction of oxides is studied at BIMET, MSISA, and IMATSP; plasma synthesis is carried out in BIMET, FNCP, and IIC; the electrical explosion of wires at IEP and SRIHV; gas condensation at IMET-Ural, ICP, and SIC "Ultram," electrolysis at IGIC; laser synthesis at RIPTC; denotative synthesis at IG, KSTU, SIA "Altai," and IP; mechanosynthesis at ICSS-Sib, IPM, F-ESTU, and ICP; and sol-gel technology at MRCTU. Polymer composites with metal UFP are investigated in ICP-Chern.

    Characterization studies of UFP are conducted in all these institutes and at RPFU, IGP, IPC, and LMSU as well. The consolidation of UFP and the properties of particulate NM are investigated at INCP, IEP, ISSSP, IMSP, BIMET, IPM, IHPP, MSEMI, ICSS-Ural, SPSTI, and IPAM. The physical and physical-chemical nature of NM is examined at PTI, IPM, IMETSP, IMSP, IMATSP, ISSP, VSTU, TSABA, ASTU, IPAM, VSPU, INCP, IP, BIMET, ISPMS, MSISA, SPSU, and MSIU. Some results of these works have been published (Andrievski 1998, Andrievski 1994, Andrievski (in press), Proc. 1995, Proc. 1997, Ext. 1997, Noskova 1997, Red'kin 1996, and Chow 1998). Application problems in the conformity of fine filters and diamond materials are being developed at SIC "Ultram" and SCA "Altai."

  2. Materials obtained by controlling crystallization from the amorphous state. The preparation, structure, and properties of these NM are investigated at many institutes (e.g., BIMET, IMP, ISSP, PTI, IPM, VSTU, VSPU, MSISA, MSIU, RIPTC, IMATSP, etc.), and the results have been reported at some conferences (e.g., Proc. 1995, Proc. 1997, Noskova 1997, Chow 1998, Bobrov et al. 1995).
  3. Films. This topic is also very popular in many research programs (e.g., INCP, BIMET, IPM, ISSP, VSTU, IMP, MSISA, IREE, IMTP, ISSC-Ural, IP-Kirg, IP, PTI, etc.). The different versions of PVD and CVD and the structure and properties of films are studied. Some of these results have appeared in books (Palatnik et al. 1972, Ievlev et al. 1982, Ievlev 1992, and Trofimov et al. 1993) and, as applied to films based on interstitial phases, reviewed (Andrievski 1998 and Andrievski 1997).
  4. Plastic Deformation. In addition, a fourth type of NM can be produced by severe plastic deformation (see the report by R.Z. Valiev in this volume).

In this brief report only the rough outlines of Russian and some NIS activities in the NM field have been presented. The list of research groups is not exhaustive and includes only the main ones. It should be recorded that the number of participants at the Krasnojarsk Conference (Red'kin 1996) included more than 350 specialists from 52 different institutes and plants from 26 Russian cities.

The establishment of international contacts between Russian, other NIS, and U.S. specialists in the field of NM seems to be advisable and promising.


Andrievski, R.A. 1991. Particulate materials science. Moscow: Metallurgija.

_____. 1994. Nanocrystalline high melting point compound-base materials. J Mater. Sci. 29:614-631.

_____. 1997. Films of interstitial phases: synthesis and properties. J. Mater. Sci. 32:4463-4484.

_____. 1998. The state-of-the-art of nanostructured high melting point compound-based materials. In Nanostructured materials: science and technology. Ed. G.M. Chow. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

_____. (in press) State-of-the-art and perspectives in the field of particulate nanostructured materials. Powder metallurgy (Minsk).

Birringer, R., U. Herr, and H. Gleiter. 1986. Trans. Jpn. Inst. Met. Suppl. 27:43.

Bobrov, O.P., and V.A. Khonik. 1995. Inhomogeneous flow via dislocations in metallic glasses. J Non-Cryst. Sol. v. 192-193:603-607.

Chow, G.M., ed. 1998. Nanostructured materials: science and technology. Dordrecht: Kluwer Scientific Publishers.

Extended abstracts, 5th conference on euro ceramics. 1997. Key Eng. Mater. Parts 1-3:132-136.

Frishberg, I.V., K.I. Kvator, B.P. Kuz'min, and S.V. Gribovskiy. 1978. Gas-phase method of powder preparation. Moscow: Nauka.

Ievlev, V.M. 1992. Structure of interfaces in metallic films. Moscow, Metallurija.

Ievlev, V.M., L.I. Trusov, and V.A. Kholmjanskiy. 1982. Structural transformations in thin films. Moscow: Metallurgiia.

Kalamazov, R.U., Yu.V.Tsvetkov, and A.A.Kal'kov. 1988. Ultrafine powders of tungsten and molybdenum. Moscow: Metallurgiia.

Morokhov, I.D., L.I. Trusov, and S.P.Chizhik. 1977. Ultrafine metallic media. Moscow: Atomizdat.

Morokhov, I.D., L.I.Trusov, and V.N.Lapovok. 1984. Physical phenomena in ultradispersed media. Moscow: Energoatomizdat.

Natanson, E.M. 1959. Colloidal metals. Kiev: Publ. AS UkrSSR.

Nepiyko, S.A. 1985. Physical properties of small metallic particles. Kiev: Naukova Dumka.

Noskova, N.I., ed. 1997 (in press). Structure, defects, and properties of nanocrystalline, ultradispersed, and multilayer materials. (Proceedings of seminar, Ekaterinburg, March 25-29, 1996.) Ekaterinburg: Nauka.

Palatnik, L.S., M.Ya. Fuks, and V.M. Kosevich. 1972. Mechanism of formation and substructure of condensive films. Moscow: Nauka.

Petrov, Yu.I. 1986. Clusters and small particles. Moscow: Nauka.

Proc. 2nd international conference on nanostructured materials. 1995. Nanostruct. Mater. 6:No.1-8.

Proc. 3rd international conference on nanostructured materials. 1997. Nanostruct. Mater. 9:No 1-8.

Red'kin, V.E., ed. 1996. Ultradispersed powders, materials, and nanostructures. Extended abstracts of inter-regional conference with international participation, Krasnojarsk, December 17-19, 1996.

Krasnojarsk: Krasnojarsk State Technical University.

Skorokhod, V.V., V.V. Panichkina, Yu.M. Solonin, and I.V. Uvarova. 1979. Dispersed powders of refractory metals. Kiev: Naukova Dumka.

Tananaev, I.V., ed. 1987. Physics-chemistry of ultradispersed media. Moscow: Nauka.

Trofimov, V.I. and V.A.Osadchenko. 1993. Growth and morphology of thin films. Moscow: Energoizdat.

Tsvetkov, Yu.V. and S.A. Pamfilov. 1980. Low-temperature plasma in reduction processes. Moscow: Nauka.

Appendix: Institutes' Acronyms and Leading Scientists

ASTU: Altai State Technical Univ., Barnaul (M.D. Starostenkov, B.F. Demynov)

BIMET: Baikov Inst. Metallurgy, Moscow (M.I. Alimov, Yu.K. Kovneristyei, M.M. Myshlyaev, M.Kh. Shorshorov, Yu.V. Tsvetkov)

FESTU: Far-Eastern State Technical Univ., Wladivostok (A.A. Popovich)

ICP: Inst. Chemical Physics, Moscow (P.I. Butiagin, Yu.I. Petrov)

ICP-Chem.: Inst. Chemical Physics, Chemogolovka (V.I. Petinov, A.D. Pomogailo)

IEP: Inst. Electrophysics, Ekaterinburg (V.V. Ivanov, Yu.A. Kotov)

IG: Inst. Hydrodynamics, Novosibirsk (A.P. Ershov)

IGIC: Inst. General and Inorganic Chemistry, Kiev, Ukraine (V.I. Shapoval)

IGP: Inst. General Physics, Moscow (E.D. Obraztsova)

IHPP: Inst. High Pressures Physics, Troitsk (V.A. Sidorov, O.B. Tslok)

IIC: Inst. Inorganic Chemistry, Riga, Latvia (T.N. Millers, E. Palcevski)

IMETSP: Inst. Metals Superplasticity Problems, Ufa (R.R. Mulyukov)

IMET-Ural: Inst. Metallurgy, Ekaterinburg (I.V. Frishberg)

IMP: Inst. Metal Physics, Moscow (A.M. Glezer)

IMSP: Inst. Machine Science Problems, St.Petersburg (I.A. Ovld'ko, Yu.I. Meshcheryakov)

IMATSP: Inst. Materials Science Problems, Kiev, Ukraine (V.V. Skorokhod)

IMTP: Inst. Microelectronics Technology Problems, Chemogolovka (V.B. Aristov)

INCP: Inst. New Chemical Problems, Chernogolovka (R.A. Andrievski, V.N. Troltskly)

IP: Inst. Physics, Krasnojarsk (G.I. Frolov)

IP-Kirg: Inst. Physics, Bishkek, Kirghistan (I.A. Anisimova)

IPAM: Inst. Physics of Advanced Materials, Ufa (R.Z. Valiev)

IPC: Inst. Physical Chemistry, Moscow (Yu.P. Toporov)

IPM: Inst. Physics of Metals, Ekaterinburg (A.E. Yermakov, N.I. Noskova, V.V. Sagaradze, V.V. Ustinov)

IREE: Inst. Radio Engineering & Electronics (V.I. Trofimov)

ISPMS: Inst. Strength Physics and Materials Science, Tomsk (Yu.R. Kolobov)

ISSC-Sib: Inst. Solid State Chemistry, Novosibirsk (V.V. Boldyrev, E.G. Avvakumov)

ISSC-Ural: Inst. Solid State Chemistry, Ekaterinburg (A.A. Rempel)

ISSP: Inst. Solid State Physics, Chemogolovka (A.S. Aronin, A.V. Serebriakov, Ya.M. Soifer)

ISSSP: Inst. Solid State and Semiconductor Physics, Minsk, Belarus (V.S. Urbanovich)

KSTU: Krasnoiarsk State Technical Univ., Krasnojarsk (V.E.Red'kin, V.V. Slabko)

LMSU: Lomonosov Moscow State Univ., Dept.Solid State Physics (A.A. Novakova)

MRCTU: Mendeleev Russian Chemical-Technological Univ., Moscow (A.S. Vlasov)

MSEMI: Moscow State Evening Metallurgical Inst. (I.P. Arsentyeva)

MSISA: Moscow Inst. Steel and Alloys ( B.S. Bokshtein, V.A. Levashov)

MSIU: Moscow State Industrial Univ. (V.P. Alekhin)

PTI: Ioffe Physico-Technical Inst., St. Petersburg (V. Betechtin, Yu.A. Kumzerov, A.E. Romanov)

RIPTC: Research Inst. Powder Technology and Coatings, Perm (V.N. Antsiferov)

RPFU: Russian Peoples' Friendship Univ., Moscow (E.F. Sheka)

SIA-"Altai": Scientific-industrial Association "Altai," Bieisk (E.A. Petrov)

SIC-"Ultram": Scientific-Industrial Center "Ultram," Moscow (L.I. Trusov)

SPSU: St. Petersburg State Univ. (V.B. Aleskovskii)

SPSTI: St. Petersburg State Technological Inst. (S.S. Ordanian)

SRIHV: Scientific-Research Inst. High Voltage, Tomsk (A.P. Iljin)

SRIPM: Scientific-Research Inst. Powder Metallurgy, Minsk, Belarus (S.G. Baral)

TSABA: Tomsk State Architectural-Building Academy, Tomsk (E.V. Kozlov)

VSPU: Voronezh State Pedagogical Univ., Voronezh (V.A. Khonik)

VSTU: Voronezh State Technical Univ., Voronezh (V.M.Ievlev, I.V.Zolotukhln)

Published: August 1997; WTEC Hyper-Librarian