Biomolecule/inorganic interactions can be used to produce ceramics with increased toughness. Fundamental studies of biomineralization, in which an organic substance (usually protein or peptide or lipid) interacts with an inorganic phase (e.g., calcium carbonate or hydroxyapatite) have led to the bioinspired synthesis of composite materials.
The structure and porosity of the inorganic phase can be controlled by templating with an organic surfactant, vesicular arrays, or liquid crystalline materials. Micelle-templated synthesis can produce ceramics with 20-100 Å pore dimensions (Ying 1998). These tailored pores can be used as catalysts and absorbents, and for gas/liquid separations and thermal and acoustic insulation. Their selectivity makes them very useful for biochemical and pharmaceutical separations. Bioceramics can also be made that are more compatible with teeth and bone.
An interesting example of an organic/inorganic composite is the new packaging material that has been developed to replace the polystyrene "clam-shell" for fast food products. Composed of potato starch and calcium carbonate, this foam combines the advantages of good thermal insulation properties and light weight with biodegradability (Stucky 1978).
It has been well documented that a very large number of organisms have the ability to precipitate ferrimagnetic minerals such as Fe3O4 and Fe3S4. In addition, linear chains of membrane-bound crystals of magnetite, called magnetosomes, have been found in microorganisms and fish (Kirschvink et al. 1992). For example, the Fe3O4 domain size in the organism A. magnetotactum is about 500 Å, and a chain of 22 of those domains has a magnetic moment of 1.3 x 10-15. It is not immediately clear how these particles could be exploited for nonbiological applications.