Drug Delivery Systems

Nanoparticles and nanospheres have considerable utility as controlled drug delivery systems (Hanes et al. 1997). When suitably encapsulated, a pharmaceutical can be delivered to the appropriate site, its concentration can be maintained at proper levels for long periods of time, and it can be prevented from undergoing premature degradation (see Chapter 3). Nanoparticles (as opposed to micron-sized particles) have the advantage that they are small enough that they can be injected into the circulatory system.

Highly porous materials are also ideal candidates for controlled drug delivery (Schnur et al. 1994) and for tissue engineering (Hubbell and Langer 1995). An example of a controlled drug delivery system comes from the area of microtubules. Phospholipid bilayers can self-assemble into long cylindrical tubes with diameters usually below a micron and lengths up to hundreds of microns (Schnur 1993). During synthesis, drugs can be entrained

Figure 7.4
An elastomeric stamp (top left) is made from an original master (bottom left). The stamp is dipped into the biological material (top right) and the pattern is transferred to the substrate (bottom right).

Figure 7.5
Mushroom-shaped clusters formed from self-assembly of rod-coil molecules; these clusters can undergo further packing to form sheets.

in these nanotubes, and the final product can be used as a controlled delivery system. Tubules prepared from phospholipid bilayers are ideal for such applications because they are biocompatible.

Dendrimers can be prepared so they are of discrete size and contain specific functional groups (Karak and Maiti 1997). They can be functionalized and used in biomedicine. Examples include gene transfer agents for gene therapy, made to carry and control the relaxivity of paramagnetic MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) contrast agents (Toth et al. 1996), and to deliver drugs on a controlled release basis.

Role of Nanoparticles in Health and Pollution

Although beyond the scope of this review, it is important to keep in mind the potential role of atmospheric nanoparticles in photocatalytic and thermal production of atmospheric pollutants. Atmospheric aerosols in heavily polluted areas have the potential to accelerate ozone formation reactions. Furthermore, because they are respirable, they could represent a health hazard. Two controversial studies (the Harvard University six-city study and the American Cancer Society study) have linked the presence of fine particular matter to premature mortality (Chemical and Engineering News 1997).

Atmospheric aerosols generally contain two major components: one is composed of amorphous carbon that has fullerene-like particles dispersed in it; the second is inorganic and consists of oxides and sulfides supported on clay minerals. In particular, the iron oxide, manganese oxide, and iron sulfide nanoparticles have band-gaps that could enhance the photocatalytic adsorption of solar radiation. In addition, these materials are acidic and may be coated with water, which would enhance their catalytic ability to crack hydrocarbons and create free radicals (Chianelli 1998). At present this is an underexplored area of research that bears scrutiny.

It is interesting to note that some microorganisms produce and sequester CdSe and CdS nanoparticles in response to high levels of toxic Cd++ in their environment (Brus 1996). A large number of organisms also have the ability to precipitate ferrimagnetic minerals Fe3O4 and Fe3S4 (see Consolidated Materials, below).

Published: September 1999; WTEC Hyper-Librarian