Table ES.2 compares the current levels of activity of the major regions assessed in this WTEC study (Europe, Japan, and the United States), for the broad areas of synthesis and assembly, biological approaches and applications, dispersions and coatings, high surface area materials, nanodevices, and consolidated materials. These comparisons are, of course, integrals over rather large areas of a huge field and therefore possess all of the inevitable faults of such an integration. At best, they represent only a snapshot of the present. Nevertheless, the panel drew the following general conclusions. In the synthesis and assembly area, the United States appears to be somewhat ahead, with Europe and then Japan following. In the area of biological approaches and applications, the United States and Europe appear to be on a par, with Japan following. In nanoscale dispersions and coatings, the United States and Europe are again at a similar level, with Japan following. In the area of high surface area materials, the United States is clearly ahead of Europe, which is followed by Japan. On the other hand, in the nanodevices area, Japan seems to be leading quite strongly, with Europe and the United States following. Finally, in the area of consolidated nanomaterials, Japan appears to be a clear leader, with the United States and Europe following.
Nanostructure science and technology is clearly a very broad and interdisciplinary area of research and development activity worldwide. It has been growing explosively in the past few years, since the realization that creating new materials and devices from nanoscale building blocks could access new and improved properties and functionalities. While many aspects of the field existed well before nanostructure science and technology became a definable entity during the past decade, it has really only become a coherent field of endeavor through the confluence of three crucial technological streams:
These developments have allowed for an accelerating rate of information transfer across disciplinary boundaries, with the realization that nanostructure scientists can and should borrow insights and techniques across disciplines, and for an increased access to common enabling tools and technologies. We are now at the threshold of a revolution in the ways in which materials and products are created. How this revolution will develop, and how great will be the opportunities that nanostructuring can yield in the future, will depend upon the ways in which a number of challenges are met.
Among the challenges facing nanostructure scientists and engineers in order for rapid progress to continue in this field are the necessary advances that must be made in several enabling technologies. We need to increase the capabilities in material characterization, be it in visualization or analytical chemistry, at ever finer size scales. We also need to be able to manipulate matter at finer and finer size scales, and we must eventually use computational approaches in directing this. Experiment simply cannot do it alone; theory and modeling are essential. Fortunately, this is an area in which the sizes of the building blocks and their assemblies are small enough that it is possible, with the ever increasing capabilities of computational sciences, to start doing very serious controlled modeling experiments to guide researchers in the nanostructuring of matter. Hence, multiscale modeling, across atomic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic length scales, of nanostructuring and the resulting hierarchical structures and material properties is an absolute necessity as we attempt in the coming decades to utilize the tremendous potential of nanostructure science and technology.
Another challenge is to fully understand the critical roles that surfaces and interfaces play in nanomaterials, owing to the very high specific surface areas of nanoparticles and the large areas of interfaces in the assembled nanophase forms. We need to know in detail not only the structures of these interfaces, but also their local chemistries and the effects of segregation and interaction between the nanoscale building blocks and their surroundings. We also need to learn more about the control parameters of nanostructure size and size distribution, composition, and assembly. For some applications of these building blocks, there are very stringent conditions on these parameters; in other applications considerably less so. We must therefore understand the relationships between the limits of this stringency and the desired material or device properties if efficient utilization of nanostructuring is to be achieved.
Since nanostructures are often inherently unstable owing to their small constituent sizes and high chemical activity, a further challenge is to increase the thermal, chemical, and structural stability of these materials and the devices made therefrom, in the various temperatures and chemistries of the environments in which the nanostructures are asked to function. A nanostructure that is only a nanostructure at the beginning of a process is not of much use unless the process is over in a very short time or unless the process itself is the actual nanostructure advantage. So, stability is a real concern in many applications. Researchers must determine whether natural stability or metastability is sufficient or if we must additionally stabilize against the changes that we cannot afford. Fortunately, it appears that many nanostructures possess either a deeply metastable structure or they can be readily stabilized or passivated using rather traditional strategies.
Reproducibility and scalability of nanoparticle synthesis and consolidation processes in nanostructuring are paramount for successful utilization of nanostructure research and development. What is accomplished in the laboratory must eventually benefit the society that pays the bills for the research, or the field will simply die. Also, significant enhancements in statistically driven process controls are required if we are to be able to effectively commercialize and utilize the nanostructuring of matter. New thinking is needed, not only about the materials, not only about the processing and assembly of these materials, but also about the manufacture of products from these materials and the economic impact of dealing with effluents. Given the commercial promise of net-shape forming of nanoscale ceramics, for example, the viability of such nanostructure production and utilization depends upon the total integrated costs of precursors or raw materials, synthesis of the building blocks, manufacturing of parts from those building blocks, and finally, disposition of the effluents. Higher than normal up-front costs for the nanoparticles or building blocks may be affordable if the processing steps save more than that. It is the total integrated costs, along with societal needs, that will determine commercial viability.
Education is also of tremendous importance to the future of the field of nanostructure science and technology. The creation of a new breed of researchers working across traditional disciplines and thinking "outside the box" is an absolute necessity for the field of nanostructure science and technology to truly reach fruition and to impact society with full force. The education of this new breed of researchers, who will either themselves work across disciplines or know how to work with others across disciplinary lines in the interfaces between disciplines, is necessary to make this happen in the future. People will need to start thinking in truly unconventional ways, if we are to take full advantage of this excitingly new and revolutionary field.
It appears that nanostructure science and technology at present resembles only the tip of a pyramid that has recently been uncovered from the sands of ignorance. As the new and expanding research community of nanostructure scholars worldwide digs away at these sands and uncovers more and more of the exciting field of nanostructure science and technology, we will eventually learn how truly important the field will have become and how great its impact will be on society. From our present vantage point, this future looks very exciting.