ADC : Analog-to-Digital Convertor

AES : Auger Electron Spectroscopy

AFM : Atomic Force Microscope

AGC : Automatic Gain Control

ARPA : Advanced Research Projects Agency (U.S. Govt.)

ATM : Asynchronous Transfer Mode; also, Atmosphere (1 ATM = 760 mmHg)

CAD : Computer-Aided Design

CAE : Computer-Aided Engineering

CAM : Computer-Aided Manufacturing

CCD : Charge-Coupled Device

CEBOT : Cellular Robot

CMOS : Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor

CNC : Computerized Numerical Control

CVD : Chemical Vapor Deposition

DEMA : Distributed Electromechanical Actuator

DIP : Dual In-line Package

DP : Differential Pressure

ECR : Electron Cyclotron Resonance

EDM : Electro-Discharge Machining

EM : Electro-Magnetic

EPROM : Electronically (Re)Programmable Read-Only Memory

ETL : Electro-Technical Laboratory (MITI)

FEM : Finite Element Method

FIB : Focused Ion Beam

FL : Fuzzy Logic

FPD : Flat Panel Display

HF : Hydrofluoric Acid

HVAC : Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning

IC : Integrated Circuit

IDMTM : Information Driven Machines that Move

IR : Infra-Red

ISFET : Ion-Sensitive Field Effect Transistor

IWD : Integrated Waveguides by Compositional Disordering

KOH-Based : Potassium Hydroxide-Based

LAN : Local Area Network LIGA : in German: Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung (a process based on lithography, electroplating, and molding)

MCM : Multi-Chip Module

MCNC : Microelectronics Center of North Carolina

MEL : Mechanical Engineering Laboratory (MITI)

MEMCAD : Microelectromechanical Computer-Aided Design (Design program under development at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology)

MEMS : Microelectromechanical Systems

MITI : Ministry of International Trade and Industry (Japan)

MLE : Molecular Layer Epitaxy

MMC : Micromachine Center (Japan)

MOS : Metal Oxide Semiconductor

MOSIS : A U.S. integrated circuit foundry service

NEDO : New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (Japan)

NETD : Noise Equivalent Temperature Difference

NIH : National Institutes of Health

NMOS : N-Channel Metal Oxide Semiconductor (a transistor technology)

NRLM : National Research Laboratory for Metrology

OD : Outer Diameter

PAT : Packaging, Assembly and Testing

pCO(2) : Partial pressure of Carbon dioxide

PGA : Pin Grid Array

Piezoactuator : An actuator typically producing a force or displacement in response to an electrical input signal

PLZT : Variation of PZT

PMMA : Poly Methyl Methacrylate (an electron-beam and X-ray sensitive resist)

PVDF : Polyvinylidene Fluoride

PZT : Lead Zirconate Titanate

QMS : Quadrapole Mass Spectroscopy

RCAST : Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology

RDT : Rotary Displacement Transducer

RF : Radio Frequency

RHEED : Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction

RIE : Reactive Ion Etch

SAS : Sensors, Actuators, and Subsystems

SEM : Scanning Electron Microscope

SIMS : Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy

SLR : Single-Lens Reflex (camera)

SMA : Shaped Memory Alloy

SOI : Silicon-on-Insulator

SRAM : Static Random Access Memory

STM : Scanning Tunneling Microscope

TFT : Thin Film Transistor

TIG : Tungsten Inert Gas (a type of welding)

ULSI : Ultra Large-Scale Integration

UV : Ultraviolet

VLSI : Very Large-Scale Integration

VSM : Very Small Machines

WCVD : Tungsten Chemical Vapor Deposition

WEDG : Wire Electric Discharge Grinding

XPS : X-ray Photo-Spectroscopy

Published: September 1994; WTEC Hyper-Librarian