Bruce B. Johnson
Most early industrial applications of expert systems were self contained. They typically used a general purpose expert system shell, ran on a single computer, and did not interface with other types of processing. Several years ago, a general movement toward integration with conventional data management systems began. Shells were redesigned to run within conventional architectures and to interface with relational databases.
Many of the expert systems we saw or discussed, and virtually all of the high-valued systems, were interfaced to data management systems as their input and output mechanism. The trend is the same in the U.S.
However, the Japanese have moved well beyond interfacing with data management systems into several other types of integration, which we discuss in this chapter.