Although the nature of this study was more to evaluate the processes and outcomes of ERATO as a program designed to influence the manner in which people work rather than to evaluate, in detail, the scientific content of the work, nonetheless, an evaluation of the science and engineering contributions is necessary since they are the foundation upon which ERATO is built. The "biosciences" subpanel consisted of Drs. Bentley, Lee, and Young, and Mr. Herer, who visited individuals and laboratories in Tokyo, Osaka, and Kyoto over a four-day period. The projects the JTEC panel visited included some previously completed, ongoing, and just underway. Specifically, the panel visited the following projects in chronological order: Furusawa MorphoGenes, Doi Bioasymmetry, Ikeda Genosphere, Yamamoto Behavior Genes, Shinkai Chemirecognics, Hayaishi Bioinformation Transfer, Watanabe Subfemtomole Biorecognition (an International Joint Research Project), Yanagida Biomotron, Hotani Molecular Dynamic Assembly, Hashimoto Polymer Phasing, Okayama Cell Switching, and Horikoshi Superbugs.