Materials and Environmental Concerns - Integrated Circuits

Wafer fabrication

Product materials: Si, SiO2, Al, Cu
EBM Issues: Water, energy, gas emissions (especially PFCs -perfluoro compounds)

Chip packaging

Product materials: Polymers, Ceramics, Ni/Au alloys, Cu,Au
EBM Issues: Energy, metal-bearing liquid waste, flameretardants, material waste

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Published July 13, 2000; WTEC Workshop on Environmentally Benign Manufacturing (EBM) Technologies