Life-Cycle Analysis (ISO 14040-14043)
LCA = Compilation and evaluation of the inputs, outputs and the potentialenvironmental impacts of a product system throughout its life (ISO 14040)
- Wide variety of packages available.
- Widely used in Europe, slightly less in Japan.
- Mostly done by experts, either internal or (hired) externalconsultants.
- Not integrated with other analyses yet
Problem: No general consensus on "standard" for measuring environmentalimpact - thus wide variety of interpretation possible (and allowed).
Other criticisms: Not tied to business perspectives, too academic, toovague, data lacking, difficult to do, does not capture "value".
Published July 13, 2000; WTEC Workshop on Environmentally Benign Manufacturing (EBM) Technologies