Site: TOKYO UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE & TECHNOLOGY
(Dr. S. Kobayashi)
Date Visited: October 4, 1991
Report Author: W. Doane
Dr. Shunsuke Kobayashi
We met with Dr. Kobayashi and two students. He showed a video of Tokyo
University, then gave an overview of his current research.
NOTES ON CURRENT RESEARCH OVERVIEW
Upon going over items on the handout list "Research Themes of Kobayashi
Laboratory" (following), we asked the following questions (Q) and received the
following answers (A):
On your surface studies, what alignment materials are being
Alkyl branched polyimides, Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, and
polypyranol conductive polymers.
Why conductive polymers?
These materials are needed to eliminate "2nd order" cross-talk
(ghosting from surface charge build-up).
Why LB films?
Need a way to avoid rubbing of AMLCD substrates. The films are
put on by dipping.
What are the LB films materials?
Polyamides (derivatives thereof).
What are the weak points of ferroelectric displays and
Surface stabilization problems are being solved, he
believes--gray scale worst problem.
How can gray scale be solved?
Here he refers to one of his papers, Kimura et. al., SID
Proceedings, 31, 139-143 (1990), in which he explains how LB films can be
used for surface treatment to yield gray scale dependent upon applied
FUNDING OF UNIVERSITY RESEARCH
In response to a question, Professor Kobayashi gave the following list of
funding sources for Japanese university research:
- Operating funds evenly distributed among faculty (3 million yen).
- Ministry of Education, Science & Culture - Like the U.S. National
Science Foundation (NSF), this agency supports basic and applied university
research. About 30% of Japanese faculty are supported. There are many programs;
e.g., $5 million/50 professors for center-type activity (well-focused
- Contract research with industry.
- Cooperative research with industry. Here Prof. Kobayashi has a program with
some 5-6 display companies on FLCs, AMLCDs, HD LCDs, LC alignment layers,
flexible displays. Gave us some literature on this ("Cooperative Research
Overhead costs are handled differently than in the United States. In Japan,
faculty are directly charged for electricity, water, and so forth.
R & D SUPPORTING AGENCIES IN JAPAN
Ministry of Education, Science & Culture (MOE or "Mombusho") -
Has many agencies, including the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
(JSPS). JSPS includes foreign exchange of students. Each agency has many
committees covering such areas as laser technology and material science; each
has representation from both government and industry.
Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (MPT) - This has projects
such as The High Definition Television Engineering Corporation (HDTEC), a joint
government-industry funded venture.
Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) - Also has many
projects and committees supported in part by government and in part by
industry, e.g., Giant Technology Corporation (GTC) for 40" direct view display
development. Another example: Japanese Association for Technology Transfer
(JATT) which has 80 committees, one of which (GTC) Professor Kobayashi chairs
on displays. This committee has 80 companies, one being Dainippon Ink.
Bench Technology Foundation or Japan Critical Technology Company: ($100
million) received funding from sources such as NTT, and supports GTC. Other
private companies also support GTC. GTC and HDTEC are small compared to the
U.S. agency DARPA.
MAJOR ISSUES THAT CHARACTERIZE DISPLAYS
Professor Kobayashi gave the following outline of issues important in a
- Information content
- Legibility (contrast ratio and luminances)
- Full-color capability
- Gray scale
- View angle
- Cost of driving circuits
- Production costs (yield, throughput)
- Space (flat panel, weight)
(Often trade-offs between 1 & 2; 1, 2, & 3, 4)
- No technology can cover all of these well.
- Kobayashi claims that all LC technologies can cover these sufficiently and
that all, if pursued strongly enough, could be marketable technologies.
- All AM companies make an active matrix display a different way, but all are
very enthusiastic and will succeed because of fierce competition.
- All LCD technologies should be explored.
- Need for direct-view display w/o backlighting.
Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
Faculty of Technology, Graduate School of Technology
Department of Electronic Engineering
Division of Electronic and Information Engineering
Motto...3E * Exotic Materials
* Ergonomics of LCDs
1991 Research Themes of Kobayashi Laboratory
(Retyped from handout provided by Professor S. Kabayashi)
:Surface anchoring of LCs
D.-S. Seo (PhD)
- Theory H. Matsuda(M)
- Polar anchoring T. Isogami
- Torsional anchoring K. Muroi
- Conductive orientation films
:Legibility of LCDs
A. Mochizuki (PhD)
:Active matrix (TFTs)
Y. Toko (R)
H. G. Suen (R)
- LC alignment A. Ishizaki (M)
- MIM-diodes H. Abe
M. Kimura (M)
- Bistability M. Ito
- Gray scale
:Optical neurocomputer with FLCD
C.M. Gomes (PhD)
- Dynamic weight matrix H. Sekine (M)
- "Dywmax Optical Neuro Computer" T. Yamazaki (M)
- a-Si photoconductor Y.G. Jin (M)
Y.B. Yang (PhD)
- SmA-SmC* phase transition T. Bang
:Optical integrated circuit
B.X. Chen (PhD)
- Utilization of EC effect
- Nonlinear optics
- Optical logic
Cooperative Research Center
- Aim of the center
The Ministry of Education (MOE) established a new system called "Cooperative
research with Incorporated Organization" by laying down a law issued on May
11th, 1978. The aim of this system is to promote cooperative researches which
will be done by the joint teams considering of the university members and those
from the incorporated organizations (mostly private companies).
- System of cooperative research
The system of the cooperative research is generally flexible compared to
other existing systems in the patent ownership, budgetting, and so forth.
The system is characterized by the classification of the budgeting category
A,B, and C as shown on Table Tok.1.
To provide the laboratories and facilities for the project teams the MOE
constructed 10 buildings of the cooperative research center already in each of
10 national universities as of 1990. The exact name of the center differs from
one university to the other according to the locality and social
- The Cooperative Research Center in TU of A/T
Regarding the layout and facility of the center, it is a three story
building locating in the south-east corner of the Koganei campus having a
branch room in the Fuchu campus. The integrated area of the main building is
1300 m2 consisting of 26 laboratory units (23 m2
each), a clean room facility (10,000, 1,000, 100 grade), that for biotechnology
of P-2 grade, a green house, an EM shield room, offices for the administration
and director, a seminar room, and others.
In our university, the building of the CRC was completed on March 31st,
In the fiscal year of 1990, 23 research projects were conducted using the
laboratories and facilities of the CRC. In 1991, 30 projects have been
Reflecting the nature of the university, the research projects can be
divided into the following four fields; new materials and electronic or
optoelectric devices (40%); biotechnology (40%); energy (10%); and mechatronics
- The process for accepting and conducting the research projects
The process adopted by us ranging from calling for projects to the start of
them is as follows:
- The MOE issues the call for projects (CFP) to all the national
- the president of the university send this CFP to the dean of faculties (the
process here after may differ as the difference of the universities),
- each faculty makes an announcement of the CFP to all the faculty members
with application formats (the deadline for the submission is 31st
- the faculty member who is interested in conducting a cooperative research
with a incorporated organization (mostly a private company) makes a contact and
negotiates with a his/her counterpart to decide title of the project, category
of the research (see Table 1), amount of the research budget, and name(s) of
the research fellow(s),
- approval for accepting the applied projects is done officially by the
faculty member meeting,
- approved projects is transferred to the board of trustee, after getting
approval by this organization, a decision making by the university is
- all the projects are again sent to the MOE to have a national budgeting
- the projects decided to be conducted in the center are transferred to the
steering committee of the center headed by the director. A representative of
each project (a faculty member) is free to use the center facility or not
according to his/her choice.
- The steering committee make a decision who will use which lab and facility,
then the projects start.
- Inviting Professors
The center has three chairs for inviting professors for a fiscal year: six
inviting professors will be also invited by diving the period of a fiscal
- Publications and open seminars
The center publishes several kinds of archives such as a brochure, news
letters (3 times in a year), and the annual report.
Open seminars are held in the campus almost every two months on the topics
of the projects and those of relevant to them. Announcements are made by direct
mail to the standing members accounting 400.
Table 1 Classification of Research Projects
(Retyped from an original document supplied by Professor S. Kobayashi.)
- 1991 Research Themes of Kobayashi Laboratory (Brochure).
- Cooperative Research Center (Brochure).
- Book of Abstracts, Exhibition of Science and Technology/Tokyo University of
Agriculture and Technology.
- Cooperative Research Center News, (Japanese) Number 4, 1991.6.
- "Electrically and Optically Controlled Gray Scale in SSFLCDs,"
Proceedings of the SID, 31, 139-143 (1990). M. Kimura, H. Maeda, C.M.
Gomes, M. Yoshida, B. Y. Zhang, H. Sekine, and S. Kobayashi.
- "A Ferroelectric LCD with Gray-Scale Capability Using Conventional CTC-
Doped Polyimide and/or Undoped LB Polyimide Alignment Layers," Proceedings
of the SID, 30, 329-332 (1989), H. Ikeno, H. Maeda, M. Yoshida, B. Y.
Zhang, M. Kimura, and S. Kobayashi.
- "Electric-Field-Dependent Tilt (Cone) Angle in a Chiral Smectic C Liquid
Crystal Showing Electroclinic Effect in the Smectic A Phase," Japanese
Journal of Applied Physics, 30, L612-L615 (1991), Y. P. Yang, A. Mochizuki,
N. Nakamura, and S. Kobayashi.
- "Measurement Method for Transitional Dielectric Constant of Ferroelectric
Liquid Crystal Filled and Aligned in a sandwich Cell," Review of Scientific
Instruments, 62, 1609-1613 (1991), M. Kimura, H. Maeda, and M. Yoshida, A.
Mochizuki, and S. Kobayashi.
- "a simple model for pretilted nematic liquid crystal medium and its
torsional surface coupling strength," Japanese Journal of Applied
Physics, 29, 2045-2051 (1990), T. Sugiyama, S. Kuniyasuu, D. Seo, H.
Fukuro, and S. Kobayashi.
- "Second-Harmonic Generation for an Interfacial Layer between Orientation
Films and Liquid Crystal Layers of Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell," Japanese
Journal of Applied Physics, 30, L504-L506 (1991), A. Mochizuki, W.
Sotoyama, S. Tatsuura, T. Ishitsuka, K. Motoyoshi, and S. Kobayashi.
- "the strength of rubbing worked on polyimide films for aligning nematic and
chiral smectic liquid crystals: controlling pretilt angles and some
electro-optic performances of lcds," Japanese Journal of Applied
Physics, 27, 827- 829 (1988), S. Kuniyasu, H. Fukuro, S. Meeda, K. Nakaya,
M. Nitta, N. Ozaki, and S. Kobayashi.
- "Effect of Electrical Properties of Orientation Films on Switching Current
and EO Performance of FE-LCD," Mol Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 202, 171-181
(1990) M. Kimura, H. Maeda, M. Yoshida, B. Y. Zhang, H. Sekine, A. Mochizuki,
and S. Kobayashi.
- "Electro-Optic Characteristics of Charge-Transfer-Complex Doped
Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Device: Realization of Very High contrast Ratio
and Perfect Bistability," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 202, 149-162 (1991),
B. Y. Zhang, M. Yoshida, H. Maeda, M. Kimura, H. Sekine, and S. Kobayashi.
- Japan Display '92. "Call for Papers."
Published: June 1992; WTEC Hyper-