(Dr. S. Kobayashi)

Date Visited: October 4, 1991

Report Author: W. Doane





Dr. Shunsuke Kobayashi

We met with Dr. Kobayashi and two students. He showed a video of Tokyo University, then gave an overview of his current research.


Upon going over items on the handout list "Research Themes of Kobayashi Laboratory" (following), we asked the following questions (Q) and received the following answers (A):


On your surface studies, what alignment materials are being studied?


Alkyl branched polyimides, Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, and polypyranol conductive polymers.


Why conductive polymers?


These materials are needed to eliminate "2nd order" cross-talk (ghosting from surface charge build-up).


Why LB films?


Need a way to avoid rubbing of AMLCD substrates. The films are put on by dipping.


What are the LB films materials?


Polyamides (derivatives thereof).


What are the weak points of ferroelectric displays and materials?


Surface stabilization problems are being solved, he believes--gray scale worst problem.


How can gray scale be solved?


Here he refers to one of his papers, Kimura et. al., SID Proceedings, 31, 139-143 (1990), in which he explains how LB films can be used for surface treatment to yield gray scale dependent upon applied voltage.


In response to a question, Professor Kobayashi gave the following list of funding sources for Japanese university research:

  1. Operating funds evenly distributed among faculty (3 million yen).
  2. Ministry of Education, Science & Culture - Like the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF), this agency supports basic and applied university research. About 30% of Japanese faculty are supported. There are many programs; e.g., $5 million/50 professors for center-type activity (well-focused research).
  3. Donations.
  4. Contract research with industry.
  5. Cooperative research with industry. Here Prof. Kobayashi has a program with some 5-6 display companies on FLCs, AMLCDs, HD LCDs, LC alignment layers, flexible displays. Gave us some literature on this ("Cooperative Research Center," attached).

Overhead costs are handled differently than in the United States. In Japan, faculty are directly charged for electricity, water, and so forth.


Ministry of Education, Science & Culture (MOE or "Mombusho") - Has many agencies, including the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). JSPS includes foreign exchange of students. Each agency has many committees covering such areas as laser technology and material science; each has representation from both government and industry.

Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (MPT) - This has projects such as The High Definition Television Engineering Corporation (HDTEC), a joint government-industry funded venture.

Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) - Also has many projects and committees supported in part by government and in part by industry, e.g., Giant Technology Corporation (GTC) for 40" direct view display development. Another example: Japanese Association for Technology Transfer (JATT) which has 80 committees, one of which (GTC) Professor Kobayashi chairs on displays. This committee has 80 companies, one being Dainippon Ink.

Bench Technology Foundation or Japan Critical Technology Company: ($100 million) received funding from sources such as NTT, and supports GTC. Other private companies also support GTC. GTC and HDTEC are small compared to the U.S. agency DARPA.


Professor Kobayashi gave the following outline of issues important in a display:

  1. Information content
  2. Viewability

  3. Cost of driving circuits
  4. Production costs (yield, throughput)
  5. Space (flat panel, weight)
    (Often trade-offs between 1 & 2; 1, 2, & 3, 4)

Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology
Faculty of Technology, Graduate School of Technology

Department of Electronic Engineering
Division of Electronic and Information Engineering

* Electronics
Motto...3E * Exotic Materials
* Ergonomics of LCDs

1991 Research Themes of Kobayashi Laboratory

(Retyped from handout provided by Professor S. Kabayashi)

:Surface anchoring of LCs

D.-S. Seo (PhD)

:Legibility of LCDs

A. Mochizuki (PhD)

:Active matrix (TFTs)

Y. Toko (R)

:Langmuir-Blodgett Films

H. G. Suen (R)

:Ferroelectric LCs

M. Kimura (M)

:Optical neurocomputer with FLCD

C.M. Gomes (PhD)

:Electroclinic effect

Y.B. Yang (PhD)

:Optical integrated circuit

B.X. Chen (PhD)

Cooperative Research Center

  1. Aim of the center

    The Ministry of Education (MOE) established a new system called "Cooperative research with Incorporated Organization" by laying down a law issued on May 11th, 1978. The aim of this system is to promote cooperative researches which will be done by the joint teams considering of the university members and those from the incorporated organizations (mostly private companies).

  2. System of cooperative research

    The system of the cooperative research is generally flexible compared to other existing systems in the patent ownership, budgetting, and so forth.

    The system is characterized by the classification of the budgeting category A,B, and C as shown on Table Tok.1.

    To provide the laboratories and facilities for the project teams the MOE constructed 10 buildings of the cooperative research center already in each of 10 national universities as of 1990. The exact name of the center differs from one university to the other according to the locality and social environment.

  3. The Cooperative Research Center in TU of A/T

    Regarding the layout and facility of the center, it is a three story building locating in the south-east corner of the Koganei campus having a branch room in the Fuchu campus. The integrated area of the main building is 1300 m2 consisting of 26 laboratory units (23 m2 each), a clean room facility (10,000, 1,000, 100 grade), that for biotechnology of P-2 grade, a green house, an EM shield room, offices for the administration and director, a seminar room, and others.

    In our university, the building of the CRC was completed on March 31st, 1990.

    In the fiscal year of 1990, 23 research projects were conducted using the laboratories and facilities of the CRC. In 1991, 30 projects have been conducted.

    Reflecting the nature of the university, the research projects can be divided into the following four fields; new materials and electronic or optoelectric devices (40%); biotechnology (40%); energy (10%); and mechatronics (10%).

  4. The process for accepting and conducting the research projects

    The process adopted by us ranging from calling for projects to the start of them is as follows:

  5. Inviting Professors

    The center has three chairs for inviting professors for a fiscal year: six inviting professors will be also invited by diving the period of a fiscal year.

  6. Publications and open seminars

    The center publishes several kinds of archives such as a brochure, news letters (3 times in a year), and the annual report.

    Open seminars are held in the campus almost every two months on the topics of the projects and those of relevant to them. Announcements are made by direct mail to the standing members accounting 400.

Table 1 Classification of Research Projects

(Retyped from an original document supplied by Professor S. Kobayashi.)


  1. 1991 Research Themes of Kobayashi Laboratory (Brochure).
  2. Cooperative Research Center (Brochure).
  3. Book of Abstracts, Exhibition of Science and Technology/Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology.
  4. Cooperative Research Center News, (Japanese) Number 4, 1991.6.
  5. "Electrically and Optically Controlled Gray Scale in SSFLCDs," Proceedings of the SID, 31, 139-143 (1990). M. Kimura, H. Maeda, C.M. Gomes, M. Yoshida, B. Y. Zhang, H. Sekine, and S. Kobayashi.
  6. "A Ferroelectric LCD with Gray-Scale Capability Using Conventional CTC- Doped Polyimide and/or Undoped LB Polyimide Alignment Layers," Proceedings of the SID, 30, 329-332 (1989), H. Ikeno, H. Maeda, M. Yoshida, B. Y. Zhang, M. Kimura, and S. Kobayashi.
  7. "Electric-Field-Dependent Tilt (Cone) Angle in a Chiral Smectic C Liquid Crystal Showing Electroclinic Effect in the Smectic A Phase," Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 30, L612-L615 (1991), Y. P. Yang, A. Mochizuki, N. Nakamura, and S. Kobayashi.
  8. "Measurement Method for Transitional Dielectric Constant of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Filled and Aligned in a sandwich Cell," Review of Scientific Instruments, 62, 1609-1613 (1991), M. Kimura, H. Maeda, and M. Yoshida, A. Mochizuki, and S. Kobayashi.
  9. "a simple model for pretilted nematic liquid crystal medium and its torsional surface coupling strength," Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 29, 2045-2051 (1990), T. Sugiyama, S. Kuniyasuu, D. Seo, H. Fukuro, and S. Kobayashi.
  10. "Second-Harmonic Generation for an Interfacial Layer between Orientation Films and Liquid Crystal Layers of Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell," Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 30, L504-L506 (1991), A. Mochizuki, W. Sotoyama, S. Tatsuura, T. Ishitsuka, K. Motoyoshi, and S. Kobayashi.
  11. "the strength of rubbing worked on polyimide films for aligning nematic and chiral smectic liquid crystals: controlling pretilt angles and some electro-optic performances of lcds," Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 27, 827- 829 (1988), S. Kuniyasu, H. Fukuro, S. Meeda, K. Nakaya, M. Nitta, N. Ozaki, and S. Kobayashi.
  12. "Effect of Electrical Properties of Orientation Films on Switching Current and EO Performance of FE-LCD," Mol Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 202, 171-181 (1990) M. Kimura, H. Maeda, M. Yoshida, B. Y. Zhang, H. Sekine, A. Mochizuki, and S. Kobayashi.
  13. "Electro-Optic Characteristics of Charge-Transfer-Complex Doped Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Device: Realization of Very High contrast Ratio and Perfect Bistability," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 202, 149-162 (1991), B. Y. Zhang, M. Yoshida, H. Maeda, M. Kimura, H. Sekine, and S. Kobayashi.
  14. Japan Display '92. "Call for Papers."

Published: June 1992; WTEC Hyper- Librarian