Niopik Organic Intermediates and Dyes Institute in Moscow produces and characterizes electrochromic materials (slow reversible chemical reactions) for a window application and fast photochromic materials (light-induced shift in absorption wavelength). Dr. V.I. Gavrilov demonstrated organic electrochromic light attenuators and shutters to the panel. These materials could attenuate light by as much as 104 to 106. At 1.5 V, the attenuation is about 103 and the response time is 1.8 s; while at 106 it is about 5-6 s. The electrochromic layer is about 150 microns with 2.5 ohms/sq. resistance. The institute has a cooperative venture with Donnelly Glass in Holland, Michigan, for automotive applications (e.g., car mirrors). The attenuators had a lifetime of about a million applications of the electric field. Dr. P.P. Kisilitsa demonstrated the spectacular colors of organic photochromic/electrochromic materials, with applications for photosensitive glasses. After radiation with UV light, the photo-induced color persists for a period lasting from several seconds to dozens of hours.
In the Department of Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Ukraine Academy of Sciences, electrochromic materials (such as tungsten oxides) are investigated and developed.