Site: Integral, Nemiga, and Electronika
Nemiga - Special Design Bureau
Date Visited: October 26, 1993
Report Authors: Z. Yaniv J.W. Doane
Mikhail I. Panichev
Mikhail S. Monak
Gennady A. Smirnov
Vladimir Viktorovitch Verbitskyi
Mihnoviets Alexander Vasilievitch
Ladoha Igor Alexanohovitch
Integral is a conglomerate (amalgamation) that includes, among others, Nemiga, a special design bureau consisting of 600 people, and Electronika, which is the conglomerate's manufacturing area.
Integral is an integrated circuit factory that includes design, process, and assembly. The basic technologies are CMOS, NMOS, and BIPOLAR. It produces memory integrated circuits, LOGIC integrated circuits, gate arrays, integrated circuits for consumer products, communication equipment, and industrial applications. Integral also produces discrete components, subsystems, complete goods, and computers.
Integral is the center of the Belarus government's efforts to create a center for the production of AMLCDs (see report on the Belarus State University). The technology of choice is MIM and is transferred basically from the Radioengineering Institute of Minsk (Professor Gennady Smirnov, see report). Students from the institute and from the university are working in the factories of Integral (Electronika, for example) exploiting the IC-processing knowledge accumulated at Integral.
Integral, the largest producer of electronic watches, produces 10 million per year. Saratov makes most of the indicators for Integral. As a result of the conversion from a military to commercial focus, Integral has started to produce medical equipment, remote controls for televisions, telephones, and integrated circuits for television sets. At present, Integral produces about 35% of the ICs for export, and anticipates an increase to 40% by the end of the year. Strong relations with Taiwan were mentioned (ERSO Mr. Chung).
The conglomerate's plan is to start producing 10" color displays by 1995. The WTEC team was shown the space allocated to the MIM pilot plant that is to be installed by 1994. Today all the R&D efforts are geared toward perfecting the process for 6" (fits well on the IC line) of 640 x 400 for computers 320 x 240 color TV. The conglomerate's scientists are focusing their efforts on producing ICs for LCD drives. Already they are producing KA 1835, a copy of a binary driver from Toshiba, and they are progressing toward a 16 gray level driver that is expected to be in production one to one and one-half years from now.
The spacers are made by etching the glass, which is technology transferred from the Belarus State University. Their packaging is old fashioned. They appear to have no experience with chip, TAB, or even elastic connectors. The glass is normal glass with a protective layer, probably Al2O3 or Ta2O5. The suppliers of glass substrates are Karal in Gomel, Gush Krystalny in Ural, and another factory in a city called Lyda. All of the equipment for the line will be produced by Planar.
The team's hosts mentioned that cooperation is welcome for capital formation and acquisition of modern equipment from the West. Under such an arrangement, the conglomerate could establish a production line, prove the process, and increase its yield, eventually transferring the technology developed on its manufacturing lines back to the West.
The visit to Integral exposed an interesting state-university- industry program that must be studied. Over 38 companies are involved in AMLCD activity that the state has decided to support as a national project.
In addition, by using the high resistivity liquid crystal developed by the university, Integral hopes to make rapid progress in its MIM AMLCDs. Furthermore, the conglomerate's scientists are applying the color filters and spacing technology proprietary to the Minsk group to improve the MIM display quality.
The hosts have provided the site report authors brochures and other documents concerning structure, history, IC technology, research and development, organization, and products. Further information on these documents is available from the author on request.