Site: Zelenograd Research Institute of Physical Problems
103460, Moscow
Fax: 7-95-531-5592, or 7-95-534-4221

Date Visited: October 27, 1993

Report Author: C. Curtin



P.E. Cladis
C. Curtin


Dr. Alexandr Vasenkov

Director, Information Technology
and International Relations
Telephone: 7/95/531-1603 or

Dr. Vladimir Makhov

Deputy Director of Microelectronics
Research Center
Telephone: 7/95/531-5331
Fax: 531-4656

Dr. Bobrov


The Zelenograd Research Institute was formed in 1964 to apply new ideas and technologies to military problems. It is vertically integrated with a large number of scientists to form a bridge between the electronics industry and the Academy of Science. A useful reference entitled Major Results of Scientific Activities 1990-1991 highlights some of the work at this institute. Developments are transferred to manufacturing plants or other laboratories for preproduction engineering. The current funding situation is Russia is hitting Zelenograd's scientists hard. For example, the cost of energy has recently been increased from an extremely low level and the institute's scientists are now faced with a monthly bill of $30,000 per month, but no new funds.


Dr. Bobrov has developed a class of thin polarizers as an outgrowth of his work on Langmuir-Blodgett films. These very thin (approx. 0.5 micron) polarizers can be put inside a liquid crystal cell. The application process was not disclosed, but it sounds like the films were floated onto the substrate. With the addition of dyes, a wide range of colors (e.g., red, green, blue, and neutral) could be achieved. The Zelenograd Institute claimed that the blue and yellow materials were stable and unique. A lifetime of fifteen years is expected. While these films are water soluble, they do not interact with LC materials and are stable to 250-350 degrees centigrade.

Also available is The MDT Catalogue of Amphiphilic Compounds for the Langmuir-Blodgett Technology, which contains more than 400 compounds. "Bucky Balls" (C60 Fullerenes) are also fabricated at the level of 100 g/month.

Dr. Vladimir Makhov has been working on field emission since 1973, especially in the study of the following problems: (1) stability, (2) ion bombardment, (3) migration under DC potential, and (4) change in work function due to gas adsorption. His solution to these problems is the application of a dielectric over the emitter. The shape factor (beta) is unchanged, and if the thickness is approx. 3 nm and the dielectric constant <6, the electrons do not see an additional barrier, leaving the work function unchanged.

A mechanical sample of a 3-year-old FED was on hand. The display area was about 2" x 2" on a 4" x 5" glass substrate. The pixel count was 128 x 128, and a monochrome ZnO phosphor was used. With 40 V on the accelerating electrode and 75 V on the phosphor screen, a brightness of 3,000 cd/m2 was obtained with a phosphor efficacy of 3 lm/W. The substrates were 20 microns apart and the operating pressure was 5 x 10-4 Pa. Wedge-shaped silicon cathodes with a packing density of 106/mm2 were used, yielding about 103 emitters per pixel. (See Figure 4.6)

These samples are fabricated in a 500 m2 Class 100 clean room at the institute.

Dr. Makhov is thinking about a new edge emitter structure that prevents ion bombardment and offers the possibility of scale-up to large areas (see Figure Zelenograde.1). He offers the following possibilities to interested parties:

Figure Zelenograd.1. Proposed edge emitter structure.


Makhov, V. "Field Emission Cathode Technology and Its Application." IVMC '91 Digest. 40-43.

Major Results of Scientific Activities 1990-1991. A 57- page booklet.

A one-page description of The MDT Catalogue of Amphiphilic Compounds for the Langmuir-Blodgett Technology. Includes contact names and numbers.

A one-page description of thin polarizers, titled "SSP- Superthin Selective Polaroids." Includes contact names and numbers.

Published: December 1994; WTEC Hyper-Librarian