2 Zavodskoi Proezd
Date Visited: October 28, 1993
Report Authors: Z. Yaniv, J.W. Doane
Vladimir N. Ulasjuk
Vladimir S. Rubin
Alexandr A. Kotlar
Vladimir N. Panin
Henry Balandin, electro-optics specialist, presented background information on Platan. After the introductions, the WTEC team was taken to the Museum Room that presented all the products developed by the Platan Corporation during its twenty-five years of existence: high brightness CRTs for a large number of applications (Figure Platan.1, converters (Figures Platan.2, Platan.3, Platan.4 and Table Platan.1), laser kinescopes (quantoscopes), video projectors, LCDs, and even some EL. All products in the past were developed for military purposes, for example, helmet displays, avionic displays, radar to video converters (used in controlling the LUNIK on the moon), and sound-to-video converters for underwater applications.
Figure Platan.1. Translated Platan brochure.
Figure Platan.2. Piroelectric vidicom (translated brochure).
Figure Platan.3. Compact cadmicons (translated brochure).
Figure Platan.4. X-ray vidicon (translated brochure).
At the time of the WTEC team's visit, Platan was in the process of exploring how to convert its excellent background in display technologies for commercial applications. For example, Platan is examining X-ray vidicons for nondestructive testing; X-ray Vidicons in medicine, where low dosage is important; very narrow CRTs (1/2" þ) with the focusing and deflection system inside; graphicone for radar to video converters for aviation; high brightness and high resolution CRTs for avionics (commercial) up to 75,000 lx; large diameter CRTs with and without internal memory for aviation controllers and dispatch systems; specialized oscilloscopes for large bandwidth (10 GHz); and sound-to-video converters exploiting piezoplate e-beam modulation for underwater oil exploration. Platan was the first to make LCDs in Russia. The company also made EL displays. (The company has now almost fully abandoned EL development and production.)
Recently, the focus has shifted to active matrix and STN displays. Platan's strength is in the packaging, using chip-on- glass technology. Emphasis in R&D is also on materials, in particular, phosphor and CdS:Se, Cd:ZnS crystals for the quantoscope.
The "quantoscope" employs an e-beam pumped semiconductor laser (Figure Platan.5). Further information on this development is included in Vacuum Fluorescent, Electroluminescent, Field Emission and Other Emissive Displays.
Figure Platan.5. Quantoscope.
Platan can obtain R, G, and B, although the blue, as usual, needs some more work.
CdS+CdSe --- green
CdSe+CdS --- red
Cd:ZnS --- blue
The Zelenograd complex (Dr. Davidov) has expertise in the area of crystal growth. The growth is from the gas phase by the Davidov- Markova method. Dr. Davidov himself presented the method in the New Materials Lab, where a number of stations (reactors) were working on producing crystals (3" þ). The deposition is at 1,200 degrees centigrade through a sublimation process. It is a very low rate process, and seven days are required to produce a 3 cm thick, 3" þ monocrystal. The crystal is sliced in 1.5 mm thick wafers that are polished. The total yield is about 20%. The highest loss is in the polishing process. In the United States, two companies were mentioned that could produce the CdSe crystal (Bridgman method from melt?): Cleveland Crystal and II- VI Systems. The WTEC team was shown a full-color projection system on a 22 m2 screen. The team saw a beautiful rose picture. The picture was bright (100 cd/m2, 1500 lm?) and very high resolution (CRT resolution 4,000 TV lines). The issues with this technology are as follows:
Despite these issues, it is an exresolution projection and must be explored.
New Application. Platan is working in collaboration with Dr. J. McCaughan, Laser Medical Center, Grant Hospital, in Columbus, Ohio. In this application, the quantoscope in red (10 W) is used for battling cancerous tumors (near the surface or with fiber optics internally) in what is called Photodynamic Therapy. The treatment is done using an injected dye (Hematoporphirin) that accumulates in the growth. The red wavelength decomposes the dye, releasing monatomic oxygen that destroys the cancerous cells. The advantage of the quantoscope is the scanning method (large area) and the selective radiation.
Projection TVs (using CRTs). Department Head Leonid Shinov made a presentation on projection television. The team was shown three systems:
The weight of the projection system is 29 kg. To save energy and also to solve the bandwidth issue for high resolution systems, the scientists drive 4 lines and 8 lines in parallel.
Figure Platan.6. Projection angle.
Figure Platan.7. Brightness from double beam addressing.
Figure Platan.8. Projection CRT.
Dr. Nahum Soschin made a presentation on the Phosphor Laboratory, which appears to be an excellent laboratory. In particular, the team was shown a phosphor encapsulated in polyethylene/polypropylene for converting UV radiation to 610-700 nm (chlorophyl absorption). This is used to enhance plant growth and to warm enclosures. It is produced in large volume at the Kustovo and Dorogomilovsky factories. Work is in progress for low-energy blue phosphor for FEDs.
The R&D program is divided into two areas:
The WTEC team saw working samples that were in color with eight gray levels. The samples were 60 mm x 80 mm in size, with 460 x 288 lines. The team saw samples made with both a-Si TFTs and p- Si TFTs.
The samples had bad pixels, but show that Platan has the knowledge and capability to produce AMLCDs in the future. Platan is designing a pilot plant that will use 300 mm x 400 mm glass substrates to produce 50,000 displays per year with 10 cm þ. The plant is to be operational in twelve months.
As glass substrates, Platan is using ordinary glass passivated.
Figure Platan.9. Interconnect diagram.
Platan is one of the most interesting display companies in the former Soviet Union. It is particularly strong in CRT and phosphor-based products. The quantoscope and the CdS:Se crystal growth are new technologies with potential that should be studied and developed. Of interest are Platan's projection TV applications, where some joint venture opportunities exist. The company's AMLCD activity is in the initial stages, but has the potential to have a pilot plant as large as that of OIS. The WTEC team was impressed by the fact that Platan has developed both a-Si and p-Si displays in parallel. With some capital, the company could satisfy the AMLCD needs for avionics in the former Soviet Union.