APPENDIX C. RUSSIAN SITE REPORTS

Site: A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute
26 Polytechnicheskaya
St. Petersburg 194021
Russian Federation
Telephone: (812) 247-6805
Fax: (812) 247-1017 or 247-2135
Telex: 121453 FTIAN SU,br> E-mail: vgrig@eo.pti.spb.su

Date of Visit: October 27, 1993

Report Author: J. Larimer

ATTENDEES

WTEC:

J. Larimer
E.C. Urban

HOSTS:

Hosts are listed below by topics given during the formal presentation. Others attended who are not listed.

Nonemissive Materials

a. Liquid Crystals

V.E. Chelnokov and E.I. Terukov

b. Electrochromat Materials

F.A. Chudnovskii

c. Substrates

S.P. Nikanorov

Nonemissive Display Technologies

a. Holographic 3-D Display

Yu. N. Denisyuk

b. Optical Systems

Yu. N. Denisyuk and V.B. Konstantinov

c. Optoelectronic Devices

B.G. Podlaskin

d. Spatial Light Modulators

B.S. Ryvkin, M.P. Petrov, V.B. Konstantinov, A.I. Kosarev, and F.A. Chudnovskii

e. Characterization Methods f. Active Matrix Display: TFT and MIM

E.I. Terukov and I.V. Grekhov

Emissive Materials

a. Characterization Electronic Materials

N.A. Bert, B. Ya. Ber, and S.G. Konnikov

b. Field Emission Activation

V.N. Schrednik

c. Porous Silicon

A. Lebedev and V.G. Golubev

Emissive Display Technologies

a. LED Based Upon Crystalline Semiconductors

V.M. Andreev, V.E. Chelnokov, and Ju. A. Vodakov

b. LED Based Upon Amorphous Materials

A.B. Pevtsov and A.I. Kosarev

c. FED

V.N. Schrednik, F.N. Timofeev, and S.A. Gurevich

d. Color Plasma

G.A. Dyuzhev

Manufacturing Infrastructure

a. Holographic Measurement Equipment

V.B. Konstantinov

b. Manufacturing Equipment

M.N. Mizerov

BACKGROUND

The Ioffe Institute was founded in 1918 and was directed for several decades by A.F. Ioffe, for whom it is named. From its beginning to the present, the Ioffe Institute and its staff have had a distinguished history of contributions and accomplishments in physics and technology. Several Russian Nobel Prize winners - - P. Kapitsa, N. Semonov, L. Landau, and I. Tamm -- were associated with the institute at various times during their careers, as were prominent men of science such as G. Gamov, I. Kurchatov, Ya. Seldovich, A. Aleksandrov, and Yu. Khariton. The institute has spawned a number of prominent research centers within Russia over the years. These include: the Institute of Chemical Physics (Moscow), the Kurchatov Nuclear Power Institute (Moscow), and the Institute of Nuclear Physics (St. Petersburg).

Today, Ioffe Institute is one of Russia's largest institutions for research in physics and technology. It employs a staff of 1,300 researchers and is closely associated with the St. Petersburg Technical University. Many of the Ioffe Institute staff are directly involved with the instruction and supervision of students in the laboratory and in the classroom.

Ioffe Institute is one of the founders and sponsors of four monthly physics journals. These are translated into English and reissued by the American Institute of Physics as: Semiconductors, Physics of the Solid State, Technical Physics and Technical Physical Letters.

The institute is organized into five large divisions with the following subdivisions or special areas:

Physics of Semiconductor Heterostructures

Solid-State Electronics

Solid-State Physics

Plasma Physics, Atomic Physics, and Astrophysics

Physics of Dielectrics and Semiconductors

STRUCTURE OF WTEC VISIT

The WTEC team began the visit with a general introduction to the institute by the institute's Deputy Director, Professor Yuri S. Gordeev. Professor Gordeev's introductory comments were followed by a series of brief presentations illustrating some of the institute's work related to display system research, development, and manufacturing. Talks on aspects of nonemissive materials, nonemissive display technologies, emissive materials, emissive display technologies, and manufacturing infrastructure were followed by laboratory tours that continued for the rest of the day. On the following Friday the team visited the amorphous semiconductors laboratory under the guidance of Dr. A.I. Kosarev. This visit completed the team's brief but intense visit to Ioffe Institute.

SUMMARY COMMENTS

The Ioffe Institute is a premier research institute. Many advances in mankind's understanding of the physical world have resulted from work done there. The political uncertainty that characterizes Russia today and the dire economic consequences of that uncertainty have had a large and negative impact on the institute. Budgets for basic research are shrinking or have been eliminated. A major institution for the advancement of science and technology is in jeopardy.

The institute's staff members are keenly aware of their circumstances. A desire to save the institute was almost universally expressed by the individuals whom the WTEC team members met. The staff expressed a willingness and an eagerness to contribute productively to display technology and science in those areas where their work and expertise were relevant. Collaborations could take many forms. Ioffe staff would be willing to work on focused projects in collaboration with commercial ventures. This work could be done at the institute, which could then employ the many resources, such as the materials characterization facility, that are available to institute staff. Many Ioffe staff members are currently visiting scientist/engineers at universities and companies throughout the world. This is also a good way to foster a productive collaboration that can continue after the Ioffe staff member returns to the institute. In addition to research collaborations, Ioffe also has limited manufacturing capabilities and could manufacture special lasers in quantities of 1 to 100, for example.

REFERENCES

General Meeting

Butusov, D.M., G.G. Gotsadze, B.S. Ryvkin, and R.A. Suris. 1990. "Internal redistribution of the electric field and optical nonlinearity in P-i-N heterostructure by electroabsorption of light." SPIE 1280.

Chudnovskii, F.A. "Media for optical data recording, storage and processing." Typed description of work with vanadium dioxide, WO3, MoO3, & V2O5 films.

Galbraith, I., and B. Ryvkin. 1993. "Empirical determination of the electro-absorption coefficient in semiconductors." J. Appl. Phys. Sept.

Konnikov, S.G,. and A.A. Lipovskii. "Characterization of optoelectronic materials and devices." Book chapter in English.

Ryvkin, B.S., D.J. Goodwill, A.C. Walker, C.R. Stanley, F. Pottier, and M.C. Holland. "New electroabsorptive device with negative resistance based upon a low-responsivity GaAs/AlAs MQW." Submitted to Appl. Phys. Letters.

Ryvkin, B.S. 1988. "Semiconductor Cells with N-type Photocurrent-Voltage Characteristic: A New Class of Nonlinear Optical Elements." Politekhnicheskaya 26.

Shrednik, V.N. "Some technological problems of the FED." Handwritten outline of work.

Active Matrix (TFT and MIM) Group

Konkov, O.I., E.I. Terukov, and I.N. Trapeznikova. "Amorphous hydrogenated carbon films with high carrier mobility for application in microelectronics." Brief manuscript describing results of studies of thin carbon films in English.

Russian paper describing a-Si and a-Si:H processed at 160-380 degrees centigrade.

Visotsky, V.A., O.I. Konkov, A.G. Smirnov, and E.I. Terukov. 1988. "Thin-film conductive-channel IGFET transistor on the base of amorphous hydrogenated silicon: physics, technology, application." Journal article about AMLCDs in Russian with English abstract.

Volkov, A.S., S.E. Kumekov, E.O. Syrgaliev, S.V. Chernyshov, and G.S. Fomkina. "Comparison of PL from a-C:H and the natural polymer collagen." One-page abstract in English.

Volkov, A.S., H. Herremans, W. Grevendonk, V. Baptist, S.V. Chernyshov, O.I. Konjkov, W. Lauwerens, and G.J. Adriaenssens. 1991. "Effect of high-temperature annealing on the distribution of gap states in a-Si:C:H." Solid State Communications. 80:383-385.

Characterization Group

Mishurny, V.A. "Description of business opportunities for joint ventures with the Solid State Electronics Department at Ioffe." Basically they have the ability to manufacture and characterize many III-V structures.

"Rokappa: X-Ray Universal Investigation Station Q-EDP 100." Product description of spectrometer manufactured by a joint Russian-Austrian venture.

Holography Group

Denisyuk, Yu. N. 1992. "My Way in Holography." Leonardo. 25:425-430.

Denisyuk, Yu. N., and N.M. Ganzherli. 1992. "Recording and reconstruction of 3-D images with an extended reference source and a pseudodeep hologram." SPIE. 1732:217-225.

"Holographic methods and apparatus for education, research and applications." A general discussion of the holography research underway at Ioffe and opportunities for joint ventures.

"Holographic Camera: Regina." A description of a product that can be used in laboratories for research or instruction. It is an example of a product that is based upon research done at Ioffe.

Position Sensing

Podlaskin, B. "Multiscan: Position-Sensitive Photodetector." Ioffe has manufactured an array of detectors that are combined with a circuit that gives a linear signal for position sensing. This material describes a commercial product.

Phase Transition Laboratory

Chudnovskii, F.A. "Samples of vanadium dioxide materials." One sample goes through a thermochromic phase transition where the reflection spectra changes; another material exhibits an image with 103 dynamic range at better than 1,000 lines per mm.

Chudnovskii, F.A. "Media for optical data recording, storage and processing." Typed description of work with vanadium dioxide, WO3, MoO3, and V2O5 films.

Amorphous Semiconductors

Kosarev, A. "Description of work on amorphous hydrogenated semiconductors."

- - - - . "a-SiC:H light-emitting P-i-N diode structures." Abstract of work.

- - - - . "Thin film a-SiC:H P-i-N photodiode structures." Abstract of work.

List of Recent Publications of the Laboratory on Amorphous Films

Karabanov, S.M., T. Mushik, D. Zrenner, and R. Schwarz. 1993. "Electroluminescence as a function of electric field and temperature in amorphous silicon carbon-based p-i-n structures." MRS Soc. Sym. Proc. 283: 597-602. In English.

Kosarev, I., A.G. Kovrov, R.A.G. Gibson, et al. 1991. "The effect of structure on the electronic properties of a-Si:H." J. of Non-Crystalline Solids. 137:371-374. In English.

Zherzdev, A.V., V.G. Karpov, A.B. Pevtsov, A.G. Pilatov, and N.A. Feoktistov. 1992. "Electroluminescence emitted by pin structures made of a-Si C:H." Sov. Phys. Semiconductors. 26:421-423. In English.


Published: December 1994; WTEC Hyper-Librarian