Site: Moscow State Institute of Electronics and Mathematics
3/12 Bolshoy Vuzovsky by-st.
MIEM, Moscow 109028
Date Visited: October 26, 1993
Report Author: R.R. Rice
Dr. Igor I. Litvak
Dr. Vladimir J. Volodarsky
The Moscow State Institute of Electronics and Mathematics - Technical University is primarily an undergraduate teaching institute with 4,000 undergraduate students. This technical university consists of five separate faculties: informatics, computers, economics, electronics, and applied radiotechnics. The basic diploma from this university requires a 5 1/2-year course of study. There are also 150 Ph.D. candidates in the institute. The total faculty strength was given as 100 professors and 600 "teachers," the definition for which was unclear, but which probably corresponds to junior faculty in an American university.
Professor Igor Litvak, who appeared to be the leader of the display activities, had written a book on the engineering and psychological aspects of display. The group covers primarily EL and LC displays. The scientists have done considerable work in display for aircraft at brightness levels in excess of 50,000 lx, and claimed to have an EL of as high quality as a CRT in a 15 cm x 15 cm format. The color was reported as yellow green, and the lifetime was given as greater than 10,000 hrs. They have operated over a variety of temperature ranges.
Dr. Litvak described a novel filter mask to control cockpit glare and allow a pilot to read the symbology at up to 100,000 lx. The angle of view for this filter mask is somewhat limited, but is adequate for a pilot. A photograph of an experimental flat- panel EL avionics display for an advanced fighter aircraft was shown that had a 15 cm x 15 cm screen about 2-3 cm thick, behind which were three (?) circuit boards and a wire harness. The image had a framing rate of 50 Hz (the WTEC team did not hear the number of pixels). The panel operated at 150 V at 1,200 Hz. Current was given as milli-Amps, and the brightness exhibited an f3 dependence on frequency. The weight of the entire assembly was given as 800 grams. This unit has not yet been installed in a high-performance aircraft.
The research is heavily oriented toward ergonomics, which has strong engineering psychology and human factors connotations in the institute's usage. Subject data was presented for error rate in reading of test displays in the presence of variable background illumination. The metrics for display effectiveness are taken as reaction time and error rate. The institute has devised standard tests for measuring these parameters for any display system or device. Dr. Litvak felt that EL and LC were equivalent with respect to ergonomic issues, but allowed that the lower voltages required would ultimately give the advantage to LC displays.
The institute has worked with display for manned spacecraft for many years. The WTEC team was shown old EL devices that were flown in manned spacecraft. For one such vehicle, team members were told that more than fifty such devices were used and only two CRTs. One panel drew 400 mW at 150 Vac, and another required 5-6 W. Evidently an interaction between this institute and the Russian space establishment continues, since the team was introduced to Dr. V. Samsonov (141070 Kaliningrad, 581-8433), who is Chief of Display Division, Spaceflight Control Center.
The Moscow State Institute of Electronics and Mathematics has significant contact with foreign universities and companies. In 1991, the Chancellor of SUNY visited the institute, and research is being performed in collaboration with Professor Olger of the University of Maryland. A UNESCO program is being developed in informatics for secondary schools. The WTEC team was told that the institute was working with the Chinese to study radiation- modified materials. Dr. Litvak informed the team that the institute has a confidential agreement with a U.S. company, but would provide no details. He said they have a program with Sony, but the details were not clear. The institute has a joint program with IBM and OCLI to test equipment imported into Russia. They have tested OCLI filters for various applications. Linz in Austria has also sent equipment to the institute for testing. Testing can be performed to Swedish standards using Swedish test methods. The institute is actively soliciting work and gave the WTEC team copies of a brochure that they were distributing. However, it was not clear how much foreign funding these activities have generated.
The Moscow State Institute of Electronics and Mathematics is a technical university providing both undergraduate and graduate training in several areas. The research and development efforts in display technology heavily emphasize ergonomics and device testing. While there was evidence of significant involvement in avionics display for advanced aircraft and manned spacecraft, it was not clear whether the institute was developing or evaluating the equipment.