APPENDIX D. GLOSSARY

ACA
Agency of Cultural Affairs (Japan)
Acquisition
means by which visual and 3D information present in the world surroundingus is acquired (e.g., by libraries)
AFOSR
Air Force Office of Scientific Research (United States)
Aglet
Java object that can move from one host on the Internet to another
ANNECS
computer-based publishing system (Nikkei)
ANTS
active node transport system
ARO
Army Research Office (United States)
ATIP
Asian Technology Information Program
ATR
Advanced Telecommunications Research Institute International (Japan)
CD-I
compact disk interactive
CD-ROM
compact disk read only format
CORBA
Common Object Request Broker Architecture (object management software fordigital libraries)
DARPA
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (United States)
Databases
systematic organization of information that is readable by computer
Digital information organization
methods of rendering information into digital form so it can be stored,retrieved and manipulated by computer
Digital library
an integrated set of services for capturing, cataloging, storing,searching, protecting, and retrieving information
Digital library architecture
emphasizes organization, acquisition, preservation, and utilization ofinformation
Digital library services
brings order where data floods and information mismanagement have causedmuch critical information to be incoherent, unavailable, or lost
Digital library systems
realizations of an architecture in a specific hardware, networking, andsoftware situation
Digital signatures
methods of assuring genuineness of digital (not handwritten) signatures,and preventing alteration
Digital watermarking
methods for detecting works based on copying or altering digitalmaterials
DIVL
digital image and video library
DLI
Digital Library Initiative. Project sponsored by NSF, DARPA, and NASA toadvance the collection, storage and organization of digital information, and tomake such information more easily available through communication networks
DVD
digital video disk
E-books
electronic books
Electronic library service
an information service that enables users to retrieve a page image from adatabase containing academic journals and magazines, along with bibliographicinformation via the Internet
GB
gigabyte (109 bytes)
Granularity
the level at which an item is described
HCI
human-computer interface
HDTV
high definition television
Indexing
description of intellectual content of the specific holdings in a library'scollection
Intellectual metadata
information that provides access to the subject or content of a digitalobject
Intellectual property
legal and/or economic rights of an author for his works, ideas
IPA
Information Technology Promotion Agency (Japan)
IR
information retrieval3/4an area of both computer and information sciencethat studies retrieval processes
IRAL
Information Retrieval with Asian Languages (annual workshop)
J-CIS
Japan Copyright Information Service
JIPDEC
Japan Information Processing Development Center
JPEG
Joint Photographic Experts Group (graphics file compression standard)
JPG
short for JPEG
Kansei
Japanese term for computing that relates to, arises from, or is influencedby human characteristics such as sensibility, perception, affection orsubjectivity
KUINS
Kyoto University Integrated Information Network System
LSI
large scale integrated [circuits]
MB
megabyte (million bytes)
Mb/s
million bits per second
Metadata
information about an item, rather than the information in the itemitself
MHTML
multilingual HTML
MITI
Ministry of International Trade and Industry (Japan)
Monbusho
(Japanese government) Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, andCulture-alternatively referred to in this report as "Ministry of Education" and"MESC"
Morphological analysis
identification and normalization of inflected word forms
MPEG
Moving Picture Experts Group (defines compression standards)
MT
machine translation
NACSIS
National Center for Science Information Systems (Japan)
NAIST
Nara Institute of Science and Technology
NARA
National Archives and Records Administration (United States)
NASA
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (United States)
Navigation
moving about in a digital collection
NDL
National Diet Library (Japan)
NEEDS
a database service and text search and retrieval system (Nikkei)
NETS
a system to convert information originally in Japanese into English forresale or inclusion in Nikkei English-language products
NEWS
a distribution system (Nikkei Economic Data Wire Service) that feedsbroadcast and online services
NGO
non-governmental organization
NIKKEI NET
an Internet, Web-based news service that charges users
Nikkei Telecom
an Internet service that features a hyper-linked online newspaper formatthat offers search and retrieval for specialized business information such ascorporate strategies and management news items
NLP
natural language processing
Non-text materials
information such as mathematical equations, tables and drawings music andvisual materials other than text
NSF
National Science Foundation (United States)
NSN
an all-business television channel that is broadcast using digitalsatellite technologies (Nikkei)
OCR
optical character recognition
ONR
Office of Naval Research (United States)
OPACS
online public access catalogs
Operational architecture
an information management system represented in terms of the businessprocesses it supports, and how information related to conduct of the businessprocesses passes through the system's components
Physical/structural metadata
information about the digital object and its relationship to other digitalobjects in a repository
PLES
"PaperLess Editing System" that prepares material for publication(Nikkei)
QUICK
customizable, personalizable online product that delivers high-end businessinformation to select customers
Search
locating items in libraries
Secure archiver
technology for obtaining authentic and time-stamped versions ofdocuments
Systems architecture
shows the technology enablers and their inter-relationships
TB
terabyte (1012 bytes)
Technical architecture
breaks down operational (business) processes into functional components andcapabilities
TIPSTER
was a DARPA-led effort to advance text processing technologies
TREC
Text Retrieval Conference: annual NIST-sponsored conference with thepurpose of encouraging research in information retrieval from large textcollections
VR
virtual reality
WWW
World Wide Web

Published: February 1999; WTECHyper-Librarian