NEFMAC

NEFMAC, or New Fiber Composite Material for Reinforcing Concrete, is made from glass, aramid, or carbon fibers (or combinations of each) impregnated with an appropriate resin system, such as polyester, vinylester or epoxy to form a grid (Fig. 3.61). The method of production, shown in the schematic in Fig. 3.62, is a batch process. A series of continuous fibers are dispensed from individual creels by a mechanical system through a wet-bath to be deposited by two orthogonal traveling (winding) heads in a grid pattern. The heads move at synchronized speeds that define the size of the grid. Successive movement of the heads results in fiber cross-over and the placement of interlocking layers until the desired content/cross-sectional area is achieved. The process is capable of line speeds in excess of 2 m/min. with about 200 m2 of grid being produced per hour. Cure is achieved through the use of UV or radiant heat.


Fig. 3.61. Examples of NEFMAC grids.


Fig. 3.62. Schematic of the "Pin-Winding" process used in the production of NEFMAC.

Characteristics and Material Properties

Since NEFMAC is available in the form of a grid, it shows very good anchorage and mechanical interlock in concrete. Furthermore, due to its resistance to corrosion and excellent resistance to alkalis, acids and chemicals, it does not require substantial cover. Its light weight (specific gravity < 2) facilitates ease and speed in construction, without loss in performance. Although the most common form of NEFMAC is a grid, it is also available in a variety of shapes and forms (including a 3D reinforcement cage). Since it is fabricated using continuous non-metallic fibers, it is non-magnetic and can be used in areas where the use of conventional steel reinforcement would pose a problem. A variety of fibers (listed in Table 3.21) can be used as reinforcements in NEFMAC.

Table 3.21
Fiber Types used in NEFMAC

Fiber

Density g/cm3

Texture g/1000 m

Fiber Diameter m

Tensile Strength kg/mm2

Young's Modulus kg/mm2

Elongation %

Remarks

E-GLASS

2.54

      

Monofilament

   

350

7,400

4.8

 

Roving

 

2,220

22

200

7,400

2.8

2,300 filaments

T-GLASS

2.49

      

Monofilament

   

475

8,600

5.5

 

Roving

 

2,240

     

CARBON

       

High Strength (HS)

1.80

800

7

500

23,500

1.4

TORAYCA T700; 12,000 filaments

 

1.77

810

7

350

24,000

1.5

BESFIGHT HTA; 12,000 filaments

 

1.79

800

7

360

24,000

1.5

PYROFIL T-1; 10,000 filaments

High Modulus (HM)

1.81

364

6.5

270

40,000

0.6

TORAYCA M040; 6,000 filaments

 

1.78

750

6.7

270

35,000

0.77

BESFIGHT HM-35; 12,000 filaments

 

1.85

900

8

260

36,500

0.7

PYROFIL M-1; 10,000 filaments

ARAMID

       

Kevlar 49

1.45

1,267

11.9

280

13,000

2.4

(11,400-denier roving)

Technora (HM-50)

1.39

167

12

310

7,100

4.4

T-240; 1,500 denier

STEEL

       

SD-35

7.8

  

&gt;50

21,000

&gt;18

JIS G3112

Stainless Steel

7.83

  

176

20,300

2.0

 

The glass fiber types are predominant for use in non-structural or secondary structure applications. Carbon reinforcements are preferred for primary structure. This is due to aspects related to mechanical performance and long-term aging, such as creep and environmental durability.

Although polyesters, vinylesters and epoxies are all used, vinylesters are the preferred resin system due to their cost structure, processing ease and general performance characteristics. In grid form, the glass fiber reinforced NEFMAC has a specific gravity of 1.7. The carbon fiber variety has a specific gravity of 1.4. The nominal fiber volume fraction in all grids is about 40%. NEFMAC grid panels are available with grid spacings of 50, 100 and 150 mm, reinforced with glass [G], carbon [C], aramid [A], or hybrid glass-carbon [H] reinforcement fibers in a variety of configurations, as listed in Table 3.22.

Table 3.22
Specifications for Standard Varieties of NEFMAC

Fiber Type

Bar No.

Cross- Sectional Area (mm2)

Maximum Load Capacity (tons)

Rigidity (tons)

Weight g/m

G

G2

G3

G4

G6

G10

G13

G16

G19

G22

4.4

8.7

13.1

35.0

78.7

131.0

201.0

297.0

390.0

0.26

0.52

0.78

2.10

4.70

7.80

12.0

17.7

23.4

12.9

25.8

38.7

103.0

232.0

387.0

593.0

877.0

1160.0

7.5

15.0

22.0

60.0

130.0

222.0

342.0

510.0

670.0

C

C2

C3

C4

C6

C10

C13

C16

C19

C22

C25

C29

2.2

4.4

6.6

17.5

39.2

65.0

100.0

148.0

195.0

260.0

320.0

0.26

0.52

0.78

2.10

4.70

7.80

12.0

17.7

23.4

31.2

38.4

22

44

66

175

392

650

1000

1480

1950

2640

3250

3.2

6.3

9.5

25.0

56.0

92.0

142.0

210.0

277.0

369.0

454.0

A

A6

A10

A13

A16

A19

16.2

36.2

60.0

92.3

136.0

2.10

4.70

7.80

12.0

17.7

90

206

342

526

775

21.0

46.0

77.0

118.0

174.0

H

H6

H10

H13

H16

H19

H22

39.5

88.8

148.0

223.0

335.0

444.0

2.10

4.70

7.80

12.0

17.7

23.4

147

331

552

846

1250

1650

65

147

244

368

553

773


Key:
G = Glass; C= Carbon; A = Aramid; H = Hybrid Glass-Carbon
In Table 3.22, the bar number reflects the diameter of a deformed steel bar having approximately the same cross-sectional area as the grid. The specification for maximum load is determined to be equivalent to 1.2 times the guaranteed tensile capacity of the corresponding Grade 50 Steel bar. The rigidity is defined as the product of the tensile modulus and the cross-sectional area. Representative stress-strain curves for the different types of grids are shown in Fig. 3.63. The effect of hybridization is the creation of pseudo-ductile response similar to the yielding of a steel reinforcing bar.


Fig. 3.63. Representative stress-strain response.

Applications

NEFMAC grids have been used in tunnels, runways and aprons for airstrips/tarmacs, roads, buildings, channels, rehabilitation, and for general architectural elements. They are often used as lightweight reinforcement in building fascia and curtain walls, where the lower requirements for cover applications result in thinner and lighter panels. The use of NEFMAC grids in the fabrication of such panels is shown in Fig. 3.64; the lightweight concrete building panels are shown being placed on a steel framed building in Fig. 3.65. Due to their non-magnetic properties, NEFMAC grids have been used as reinforcement in hospitals and in free-access floors, as well as in sensitive structures such as scientific laboratories and observatories (Fig. 3.66). In coastal areas and regions where rapid corrosion of steel reinforcement is a concern, NEFMAC elements can be used by themselves or in combination with heavier steel bars. For example, in the coal silo of the Daio-Paper Mill on Shikoku Island NEFMAC elements were used for the outermost reinforcing layer, which also served as a barrier for crack propagation (Fig. 3.67).


Fig. 3.64. Use of NEFMAC in the fabrication of a lightweight concrete curtain wall panel.


Fig. 3.65. Placement of NEFMAC reinforced curtain wall panels in a building frame.


Fig. 3.66. Use of NEFMAC as a reinforcement in the foundation of the Earth Magnetism Observatory.


Fig. 3.67. Use of NEFMAC as secondary reinforcement in a concrete silo structure in a coastal region.
The light weight, environmental resistance and ease of fabrication facilitated through the use of NEFMAC elements makes it an attractive reinforcing element for adverse conditions which could otherwise hamper construction. For example, at the South Pole the climate itself causes embrittlement of steel rods and makes rapid construction (including welding) difficult. NEFMAC panels were used extensively in the construction of the Showa Antarctic Base in 1991 as seen in Figs. 3.68-72. Not only was fabrication of foundations and walls easier because of the light weight and ease of placement, but there was also a greater assurance of quality and future performance without the severe degradation seen in conventional reinforcement. C10 and C16 varieties of NEFMAC (see Table 3.22) were used in the construction of floating foundation slabs, columns and column bases, walls and floors.


Fig. 3.68 . Schematic of the Administration Block Building for the Polar Base Facility.


Fig. 3.69. Use of NEFMAC in the foundation base.


Fig. 3.70. Use of NEFMAC 3D forms in the column.


Fig. 3.71. Use of NEFMAC grid as wall reinforcement.


Fig. 3.72. Use of NEFMAC as reinforcement in the floor.

Due to their excellent corrosion resistance, these grids, especially carbon fiber reinforced NEFMAC, have been used extensively in marine structures. Applications range from their use as reinforcement for fender plates and pier panels to their use as the primary reinforcement for concrete in a floating pier structure in Tokyo. In this latter example, 2,100 m2 of G2-50P NEFMAC grids were used as reinforcement in pontoons (built in 1989) as shown in Figs. 3.73-75.


Fig. 3.73. Schematic showing geometry of the pontoon.


Fig. 3.74. View of a single pontoon fabricated using NEFMAC grids as reinforcement.


Fig. 3.75. Overall view of the floating jetty.

Due to its non-corrosive nature, light weight, resistance to alkalis, water, oil, and sludge, and the capability of manufacturing grids to conform to a variety of shapes and contours, NEFMAC is often used as the reinforcement for shotcrete, both in repair and retrofit and for new linings and coverings. For this application, after the application of an appropriate but undisclosed safety factor, the G3 and G4 grades of NEFMAC with performance levels of 4,000 kg/m and 6,000 kg/m strength per width are more than equivalent to the strength levels shown by conventional welded wire fabric (2,513 to 5,890 kg/m). In this form of construction, a layer of shotcrete is first sprayed onto the surface to be covered. Then NEFMAC grids/elements are stapled to the shotcrete substrate using an air gun with compressed air loaded with staples 19 mm to 38 mm long and 16 mm wide between heads having a cross-section of 2.1 mm by 1.8 mm. Due to the light weight and ease of conformance, relatively few staples are needed. Then a thin covering coat of shotcrete is sprayed on. The use of thin layers of shotcrete, coupled with the ease in placement of the NEFMAC, dramatically increases worker productivity. Figure 3.76 shows the grid structure used for tunnel linings fabricated with this technique.


Fig. 3.76. NEFMAC grid for tunnel lining reinforcement.

Figures 3.77-78 show NEFMAC used as reinforcement for a shotcrete lining in an underground oil storage facility and the pilot tunnel leading to the facility. This facility is owned by Dengen Kaihatsu in Kagoshima Prefecture and uses G3 and G4 grades of NEFMAC. The overall cross-section is shown schematically in Fig. 3.79, which also indicates the use of rock bolts through the walls.


Fig. 3.77. Use of NEFMAC as lining reinforcement in an underground storage facility.


Fig. 3.78. Use of NEFMAC as lining reinforcement in the pilot tunnel (note the irregular face of rock).


Fig. 3.79. Schematic of cross-sectional configuration.

The shotcrete method also can be used for the rehabilitation and repair of tunnels using pre-stapled NEFMAC grids to form linings/walls (Fig. 3.80). The method also has been used for the fabrication of new tunnel linings for penstocks and tunnels for water supply in hydroelectric power plants (Figs. 3.81-82). Examples of the early use of this method (known as NATM) are given in Table 3.23.


Fig. 3.80. Use of NEFMAC in the repair/retrofit of a railway tunnel.


Fig. 3.81. Use of NEFMAC as reinforcement for the lining of tunnel walls in a hydroelectric plant.


Fig. 3.82. Use of NEFMAC as reinforcement in the floor of a tunnel used for transport of water.

The light weight of NEFMAC has also been used advantageously to prefabricate tunnel lining segments and provide reinforcement between segments during the repair of a tunnel on the Japan Railway Sobu Line (Figs. 3.83-85).

Table 3.23
Early Applications of NEFMAC in Tunnel Construction

Period

Project

Use of NEFMAC

Location

Specifications and Dimensions of Grid Elements

Setting Area (m2)

Cumulative Total Setting Area (m2)

May - June 1986

Kumaushi Hydroelectric Power Plant

Reinforcing grids for shotcrete

Kumaushi (Hokkaido)

1.3 m x 0.9 m, 100 mm

Glass Fiber

Glass Fiber + Carbon Fiber

120

120

July

1986

Kumaushi Hydroelectric Power Plant

Reinforcing grids for shotcrete of water-conveyance tunnel at hydroelectric power plant

 

1.3 m x 0.9 m, 100 mm

Glass Fiber

Glass Fiber + Carbon Fiber

30

150

August 1986

Kumaushi Hydroelectric Power Plant

Reinforcement for invert of water-conveyance tunnel

Kumaushi (Hokkaido)

3.82 m x 0.96 m, 150 mm

3.82 m x 0.66 m, 150 mm

Glass Fiber

60

210

October 1986

Kakkonda Hydroelectric Power Plant

Reinforcement for arch, side wall and invert of water-conveyance tunnel for crack prevention

Kakkonda (Iwate Prefecture)

Reinforcement for arch Diameter: 4.3 m, Depth 0.9 m

Reinforcement for Side Wall: 0.9 m x 3.3 m

Reinforcement for Invert:

0.7 m x 3.3 m, Glass Fiber

220

430

November 1986

Kumaushi Hydroelectric Power Plant

Reinforcing grids for shotcrete of tunnel-type water reservoir

(Shizuoka Prefecture)

1.0 m x 3.0 m, 150 mm Glass Fiber

70

500

February 1987

Kumaushi Hydroelectric Power Plant

Reinforcement for arch of water-conveyance tunnel

Kumaushi (Hokkaido)

Reinforcement for arch: Diameter: 4.3 m

Depth 3.2 m

Reinforcement for Side Wall: 2.1 m x 3.2 m

Grid Interval: 100 mm x 150 mm

Glass Fiber

160

660

February - March 1987

 

Reinforcing grids for shotcrete of pilot tunnel

(Iwate Prefecture)

3.05 m x 2.0 m, 150 mm

Glass Fiber

380

1040

April

1987

 

Reinforcing grids for shotcrete of advancing drift

Matsudai (Niigata Prefecture)

2.0 m x 0.75 m, 150 mm

Glass Fiber

150

1190

June

1987

Kushikino Underground Petroleum Storage

Reinforcing grids for shotcrete of underground rock cavern for petroleum storage

Kushikino (Kagoshima Prefecture)

2.0 m x 3.0 m, 150 mm

Glass Fiber

540

1730


Fig. 3.83. Placement of a prefabricated tunnel liner panel.


Fig. 3.84. Use of NEFMAC at joints between panels.


Fig. 3.85. Completed lining.

Besides its use in tunnels as part of a shotcrete or precast system, the grids have been applied to shotcrete for reinforcing dam slopes and embankments (Figs. 3.86-88), and walls of in-ground excavated storage tanks (Fig. 3.89).


Fig. 3.86. Application of NEFMAC for reinforcing the downstream slope of a dam.


Fig. 3.87. Application on a slope.


Fig. 3.88. Placement of shotcrete covering on NEFMAC used for slope reinforcement.


Fig. 3.89. Use of grid as reinforcement for the wall of an excavated storage tank.

2D and 3D grid elements also have been used as reinforcements in systems for slope protections and stability (Fig. 3.90-92).


Fig. 3.90. Placement of 3D grid reinforcement cages on a slope.


Fig. 3.91. Partially completed slope protection system using NEFMAC reinforced concrete.


Fig. 3.92. Completed slope protection system.

NEFMAC grids have recently been used in the repair and rehabilitation of concrete decks. In the case of the Tedorigawa Bridge (initially constructed as part of the expressway system in 1972), corrosion due to salt had severely degraded the concrete deck soffit. About 20,000 m2 of C3-50P (carbon fiber reinforcement with 50 mm grid spacing) grids were used in a polymer mortar for the rehabilitation. The grids were anchored to the original concrete using dowels with 60 mm heads, and were covered with a mortar for which they served as a base and reinforcement. In the case of the Niiborigawa bridge, the girders themselves were deteriorating. The lower 5 cm of each girder was chipped away and the reinforcement was exposed. NEFMAC grids (C3, C6 and C10) were placed on the exposed surfaces using dowels (Fig. 3.93-94) and precast concrete forms were placed on top. The area in between the NEFMAC grid and the concrete surface was then filled with polymer mortar through injection.


Fig. 3.93. NEFMAC grid attached to the bottom of the exposed beam.


Fig. 3.94. Rehabilitation of the Niiborigawa Bridge.

In another application, specially shaped NEFMAC elements were used as the reinforcement for the guideway on a prototype linear motor rail line on which speeds are expected to reach 500 km/hr. NEFMAC reinforcements were chosen because of their non-magnetic characteristics and ability to be molded for complex shapes. About 100,000 carbon fiber reinforced units consisting of grids and hoop reinforcement were used over a distance of 18 kilometers.

Similar to the NOMST (Novel Material Shield-Cuttable Tunnel Wall System) technology developed by Nippon Steel, NEFMAC can also be used to reinforce shaft walls, facilitating easier access through a shaft wall using a shield/bore, which can cut through the composite reinforcement without deterioration of bits in the rotary cutter. Not only does this application conserve resources, it also increases safety (previously a chip and brace method was used for the entrance) and speeds up the entire process without resorting to chemical grouting. A schematic of the process is shown in Fig. 3.95.


Fig. 3.95. Schematic of the reinforcing scheme for shaft walls.

In this kind of application, NEFMAC is generally in the form of a flat grid with spacing at 50, 100 and 150 mm. But a variety of curved panels are also available for specific geometries. Panels are primarily reinforced with carbon fiber using grades C10, C16, C22, C25, C29 (see Table 3.22) used in conventional applications of NEFMAC and special grades C32 and C35 (having sectional areas of 395 and 480 mm2, maximum load capacities of 47.4 and 57.6 tons, and weights of 561 and 682 g/m, respectively). Glass fiber reinforced grids are rarely used. But when they are, G10, G16 and G19 grades are the common choices. Figure 3.96 shows a large wall section fabricated from multiple grids, and Fig. 3.97 shows the placement in a caisson wall.


Fig. 3.96. Lifting of a multi-element wall section.


Fig. 3.97. Placement of NEFMAC "wall."

Figures 3.98 and 3.99 show the placement of reinforcing elements for shaft walls and depict double layers and connection details.


Fig. 3.98. Placement of NEFMAC in shaft walls.


Fig. 3.99. Reinforcement detail near head of tunnel showing double layers.

Connections between two or more layers of reinforcement use specially shaped "stirrup" and "plinth" reinforcements (Fig. 3.100).


Fig. 3.100. "Stirrup" and "Plinth" connectors.

An extensive list of NEFMAC applications since 1986 is given in Table 3.24. Sizes and types of grids are also detailed. Some applications in Table 3.24 (marked "*") have been listed by various sources as having either glass or carbon fiber reinforced grids. Although it is clear that a large number of the projects listed in Table 3.24 are actual applications, rather than test sites, it is not clear which of the listed sites were limited demonstrations, validation tests, or even included test articles. No data was available on the economics of the technology itself. Although a preponderance of applications appear to have used glass fibers as reinforcement prior to 1994, applications since then appear to strongly favor the use of carbon fiber. It may be coincidental that this was about the time when Shimizu concluded an extensive study on aging and durability of NEFMAC material.

Table 3.24
Use of NEFMAC

No.

Structure and Location

Application

Specification and Dimensions

Date

1

Kamaushi Hydroelectric Plant

Electric Power Development Co., Ltd.

Hokkaido

Reinforcement in shotcreted tunnel linings

G4 - 100P - 0.9 m x 1.3 m

H4 - 100P - 0.9 m x 1.3 m

Total = 120 m2

5/86 - 6/86

2

Manami Hydroelectric Plant

Kansai Electric Power Co., Ltd.

Gifu Prefecture

Reinforcement in shotcreted tunnel linings

G4 - 100P - 0.9 m x 1.3 m

H4 - 100P - 0.9 m x 1.3 m

Total = 30 m2

7/86

3

Kamaushi Hydroelectric Plant

Electric Power Development Co., Ltd.

Hokkaido

Reinforcement in the invert tunnel

G19 - 150P - 3.8 m x G13 -150P - 1.0 m

G19 - 150P - 3.8 m x G13 -150P - 0.7 m

Total = 60 m2

8/86

4

Kakkonda Hydroelectric Power Station

Tohoku Electric Power Co., Ltd.

Iwate Prefecture

Repair of channels

Reinforcement in arches, side walls and inverts to prevent cracks

Arch: G10 - 100P - 0.9 m x 3.8 m - 1.05R

Side Walls: G10 - 100P - 0.9 m x 3.3 m

Invert: G10 - 100P - 0.7 m x 3.3 m

Total = 220 m2

10/86

5

Asahi Glass Co., Ltd.

Reinforcement for free access floor panels

G2 - 60P - 0.5 m x 0.5 m

G3 - 30P - 0.5 m x 0.5 m

Total = 157,090 m2

11/86 - 4/91

6

Water Reservoir - Underground

Numazu City, Shizuoka Prefecture

Reinforcement in shotcreted walls

G4 - 150P - 1.0 m x 3.0 m

Total = 70 m2

11/86

7

Pilot Tunnel for Underground Petroleum Storage Facility

Kaihatsu Koji KK, Iwate Prefecture

Reinforcement in shotcreted walls

G3 - 150P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

G4 - 150P - 2.0 x 3.0 m

Total = 380 m2

2/87 - 3/87

8

Kamaushi Hydroelectric Plant

Electric Power Development Co., Ltd.

Hokkaido

Reinforcement in the arch and side walls for water conveyance tunnel

Arch: G13 - 150P - 3.2 m x G16 - 100P -2.9 m - 2.2R

Side Walls: G13 - 150P - 3.2 m x G16 - 100P - 2.1 m

Total = 160 m2

2/87

9

Huthu Steam Power Station

Tokyo Electric Power Co., Ltd.

Chiba Prefecture

Reinforcement in the gate panel for cooling water stream, used for crack prevention

Reinforcement: C6 - 50P - 0.2 m x 0.2 m

Crack Control: G13 - 200P - 2.2 m x 2.5 m

G13 - 200P - 2.2 m x 0.2 m

Total = 50 m2

4/87

10

Daio Seishi KK Coal Silo of a Paper Mill, Iyomishima, Shikoku

Reinforcement of silo walls

G4 - 150P - 1.7 m x 3.0 m

Total = 4700 m2

4/87 - 7/87

11

Railroad Public Corp.

Matsudai, Niigata Prefecture

Shotcrete reinforcement for lining used in expansion of the tunnel

G6 - 150P - 0.8 m x 2.0 m

Total = 150 m2

4/87

12

Okabe Doboku KK

Kushiro, Hokkaido

Reinforcement for shotcrete used for protective layer of a retaining wall

G4 - 150P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

Total = 80 m2

8/87

13

Iwata &amp; Co., Ltd.

(Iwata Shokai)

Grids in a purification/ digester facility

G2 - 34P - 1.1 m x 1.2 m

G3 - 34P - 1.1 m x 1.2 m

Total = 4570 m2

8/87

14

Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd.

Negishi, Kanagawa Prefecture

Reinforcement for shotcrete used on vertical walls of an underground LPG storage facility

G4 - 150P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

G4 - 150P - 1.75 m x 2.0 m

Total = 11,130 m2

12/87 - 3/88

15

Asahi Glass Co.

Reinforcement in lids/ covers for gutters

G2 - 60P

G2 - 50P x 150P

G3 - 50P x 200P

Total = 91,390 m2

12/87

16

Oshima Earth Magnetism Observatory

Tokyo University, Tokyo

Reinforcement for foundations

G10 - 100P

Total = 300 m2

2/88

Table 3.24 (cont.)
Use of NEFMAC

No.

Structure and Location

Application

Specification and Dimensions

Date

17

JR, East Japan Railway Corp.

Reinforcement for troughs, channels, etc.

G2 - 60P

G2 - 50P x 150P

G3 - 50P x 200P

Total = 148,020 m2

3/88

18

Tokyo Electric Power Co.

Saiko Hydroelectric Power Station

Yamanashi Prefecture

Surface reinforcement and reinforcement for shotcrete used on retaining walls

G2 - 50P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

Total = 270 m2

4/88

19

Kushikino Underground Petroleum Storage Facility, Kushikino

Kagoshima Prefecture

Reinforcement for shotcrete used as lining of the underground rock cavern

G3 - 150P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

G4 - 150P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

Total = 500,200 m2

4/88 - 4/91

20

Kushikino Underground Petroleum Storage Facility, Emergency Exit Tunnel

Reinforcement for shotcrete lining of tunnel

G3 - 150P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

Total = 6,200 m2

5/88 - 8/88

21

Kuji Underground Petroleum Storage Facility, Kuji, Iwate Prefecture

Reinforcement for shotcrete lining of underground rock cavern

G3 - 150P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

G4 - 150P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

Total = 108,300 m2

6/88 - 9/90

22

Nippon Silo, KK

Chiba Prefecture

Reinforcement for fenders at piers

G19 - 175P - 4.2, x G19 - 200P - 2.3 m

Total = 40 m2

11/88

23

Kikuma Underground Petroleum Storage Facility

Kikuma, Ehime Prefecture

Reinforcement for shotcrete lining of underground rock cavern

G3 - 150P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

G4 - 150P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

Total = 146,000 m2

12/88 - 2/91

24

Tokyo Electric Power Co.

Utsonomiya, Tochigi Prefecture

Reinforcement for shotcrete lining of tunnel for power transmission

G3 - 150P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

Total = 1300 m2

12/88

25

Seismological Research Institute

University of Tokyo, Izu-Ohshima Tokyo

Non-magnetic reinforcement for foundations, beams and slabs

Foundation: G10 - 100P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

Slab: G10 - 200P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

Corners: G10 - 100P - 0.4 m x 0.7 m

Total = 260 m2

2/89

26

JR, West Japan Railway Co., Ayabe

Kyoto Prefecture

Reinforcement for shotcrete lining of tunnel during repair

G5 - 150P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

Total = 360 m2

2/89

27

Alpha Technology Corp.

Reinforcement for water permeable sheets

G3 - 29P - 0.3 m x 0.3 m

G4 - 29P - 0.3 m x 0.3 m

Total = 850 m2

2/89

28

Toyo Kosoku Tetsudo KK Kitanarashino, Chiba Prefecture

Reinforcement during width expansion of a tunnel

G2 - 50P - 1.1 m x 2.0 m

Total = 2700 m2

2/89

29

Floating Jetty, Tokyo City Government

Reinforcement panels for a floating jetty

G2 - 50P

Total = 2100 m2

5/89

30

Shimizu Chisho K.K.

Yokohama, Kanagawa Prefecture

Reinforcement in curtain walls

H8 - 100P - 2.0 m x 3.2 m

Total = 130 m2

5/89

31

JR, East Japan Railway Co., Niigata Prefecture

Reinforcement for shotcrete lining added during tunnel maintenance

G2 - 150P - 1.5 m x 2.0 m

Total = 150 m2

7/89

32

Geo-Magnetic Observatory of the Meteorological Agency

Ibaraki Prefecture

Non-magnetic reinforcement for foundations

G10 - 200P - 1.6 m x 3.2 m

Total = 20 m2

10/89

33

Jumonji Doboku KK

Chiba Prefecture

Reinforcement for shotcrete used for tunnel width expansion

G2 - 50P - 1.1 m x 2.0 m

Total = 220 m2

11/89

34

Retaining Wall

Hachiohji, Tokyo

Reinforcement for shotcrete layer on a retaining wall

G5 - 40P x 150P - 2.0 m x 3.3 m

Total = 5710 m2

12/89

35

Kikuma Underground LPG Facility, Mizushimu, Okayama Prefecture

Reinforcement for shotcrete used in the service tunnel

G3 - 150P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

G4 - 150P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

Total = 7200 m2

12/89 - 6/90

36

Hokkaido Electric Power Co.

Hokkaido

Reinforcement in lining of the Headrace Tunnel

G4 - 150P

Total = 3000 m2

12/89

Table 3.24 (cont.)
Use of NEFMAC

No.

Structure and Location

Application

Specification and Dimensions

Date

37

Kamioka Kogyo KK

Reinforcement for shotcreted walls

G2 - 100P - 1.5 m x 3.0 m

Total = 90 m2

1/90

38

Underground LPG Storage and Test Facility (Kajima &amp; Taisei &amp; Shimizu)

Reinforcement for shotcrete

G4 - 150P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

Total = 1680 m2

2/90 - 8/90

39

Mine Cavern - Hokkaido

Rehabilitation through reinforcement of cavern walls using shotcrete

G2 - 50P - 2.0 m x 30.0 m

Total = 840 m2

3/90

40

Toyohane Kozan KK

Reinforcement for shotcrete

G2 - 50P - 2.0 m x 30.0 m

Total = 3100 m2

3/90

41

JR East Japan Railway Co.

Tokyo

Reinforcement for shotcrete used in tunnel repair

G10 x G6 - 150P -x 80 - 1.58 m

Total = 540 m2

3/90

42

Joint Venture Project between Kajima Corp. &amp; Kobayashi Metals, Ltd.

Reinforcement for shotcrete

G4 - 150P - 1.5 m x 2.0 m

Total = 150 m2

5/90

43

Teihyu KK Floating Pier

Tokyo

Reinforcement in concrete used in floating piers

G2 - 50P - 2.0 m x 10.0 m

Total = 1510 m2

5/90

44

Kashiwazaki Nuclear Power Plant

Tokyo Electric Power Co.

Niigata Prefecture

Reinforcement in concrete slabs

G3 - 50P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

Total = 1260 m2

5/90

45

Hokkaido Electric Power Station

Hokkaido Power Co.

Hokkaido

Reinforcement used in repair of tunnels

G4 - 150P - 1.1 m x 2.0 m

Total = 120 m2

9/90

46

Hokkaido Electric Power Station

Hokkaido Power Co.

Hokkaido

Reinforcement for tunnel used for transport of water

G4 - 150P - 1.1 m x 2.0 m

G4 - 150P - 1.5 m x 2.0 m

G4 - 150P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

G4 - 150P - 0.89 m x 3.0 m

Total = 2510 m2

9/90 - 12/90

47

Akiba Hydroelectric Power Station

Akiba III Plant

Shizuoka Prefecture

Reinforcement for shotcrete

G4 - 150P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

Total = 300 m2

10/90

48

Hokkaido Power Co.

Hokkaido

Reinforcement for repair of a tunnel

G4 - 150P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

G4 - 150P - 0.89 m x 3.0 m

Total = 2390 m2

12/91

49

Showa Administrative Building

National Institute of Polar Research

Antarctica

Reinforcement for walls, floors, columns, foundation

C10 - 100P - 1.4 m x 3.0 m *

C6 x C14 - 100P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

C16 x C10 - 450P x 2.0 m

Total = 970 m2

3/91

50

JR East Japan Railway Co.

Non-magnetic reinforcement of railroad crossing pavement

G10 - 100P - 1.5 m x 1.9 m

G10 - 100P - 1.0 m x 1.9 m

Total = 80 m2

4/91

51

Dengen Kaihatsu

Kagoshima Prefecture

Reinforcement for shotcrete in an underground storage facility

C10 &amp; C16 grids

Total = 1000 m2

4/91

52

Shield Walls

Reinforcement for shaft walls where shields are used for horizontal tunnels

C13 - 150P - 1.3 m x 4.6 m *

C16 - 150P x 300P - 2.2 m x 4.6 m

Total = 50 m2

5/91

53

Fukuda Gumi KK

Reinforcement for a tunnel in hot springs

G13 - 200P - 2.8 m x 5.4 m - 6.1R

G13 - 200P - 2.8 m x 4.9 m - 6.1R

G2 - 50P - 2.0 m x 10.0 m

Total = 700 m2

5/91

54

Water Purifier System

Reinforcement mesh (may be by itself, without concrete, application details are not clear)

G6 - 100P

G10 - 100P

G13 - 75P

G2 - 50P

Total = 1000 m2

5/91

Table 3.24 (cont.)
Use of NEFMAC

No.

Structure and Location

Application

Specification and Dimensions

Time

55

Joint Venture Project between Shimizu Corp., Sumitomo Corp. and Tamehiro Kensetsu

Reinforcement in shotcrete used on the downstream surface of the dam

G4 - 100P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

Total = 23,160 m2

6/91 - 3/92

56

Dengen Kaihatsu

Ehime Prefecture

Shotcrete reinforcement in an underground oil storage facility

G3 - 150P

G4 - 150P

Total = 150,000 m2

6/91

57

Dengen Kaihatsu

Iwate Prefecture

Reinforcement for shotcrete in an underground oil storage facility

G3 - 150P

G4 - 150P

Total = 110,000 m2

8/91

58

Hokkaido Electric Power Co.

Hokkaido

Reinforcement for walls of a conduit tunnel repair

G11 - 150P - 0.81 m x 3.1 m

G11 - 150P - 1.75 m x 4.2 m

Total = 890 m2

8/91

59

Nippon Denso Co., Ltd.

Non-magnetic reinforcement for floors and moving shutter slabs

G19 - 100P - 1.2 m - 1.7 m x 4.0 m x 6.8 m

Total = 230 m2

1/92

60

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Inc.

Reinforcement for floor slabs

G4 - 150P - 2.0 m x 3.0 m

Total = 6800 m2

1/92 - 2/92

61

Kyushu Electric Power Co.

Inunaki Dam

Fukuoka Prefecture

Reinforcement for shotcrete used on downstream slope

G4 - 100P

Total = 25,000 m2

6/92

62

Hokkaido Electric Power Co.

Hokkaido

Reinforcement in the Headrace Tunnel

G6 - 150P

Total = 3000 m2

6/92

63

Dengen Kaihatsu

Okinawa Prefecture

Shotcrete reinforcement in the structure of a seawater based power pumping plant

G4 - 150P - 1.7 m x 2.0 m

Total = 8000 m2

7/92

64

Tokyo Gas Co.

Kanagawa Prefecture

Reinforcement for shotcrete in an underground LPG tank

G4 - 150P

Total = 29,000 m2

10/92

65

Tokyo Electric Power Co.

Chiba Prefecture

Reinforcement in shaft walls for shield operation

C9 - 100P

Total = 200 m2

 

66

Yamanashi Linear Motor Test Track Railway Construction Corp.

Reinforcement for track

C10 - 100P

Various shapes over an 18 km track

 

67

Shinhorikawa Bridge

Japan Highways Public Corp., Ishikawa Prefecture

Reinforcement for external repair of the bridge

C10, C6, C3 - 50P

Total = 150 m2

 

68

Tedorigawa Bridge

Japan Highways Public Corp., Ishikawa Prefecture

Reinforcement in polymer mortar added to soffit and girders for strengthening of the structural elements

C3 - 50P

Total = 15,000 m2

 

Published: November 1998; WTEC Hyper-Librarian