As in other areas where the Japanese attempt to enter or create a market for new products, there is a great deal of pre-competitive collaboration through special associations and societies formed for that purpose. The Advanced Composite Cable (ACC) Club was formed in November 1991 with the specific aims of promoting the use of composite reinforcing elements (rods, bars, tendons, grids, cables, etc.) and of developing associated technology in the construction industry. The charter of the association states six main activities, namely:
At the time of the WTEC visit, the ACC club had 65 member companies, comprising three different classes of members. The largest group, regular members, is comprised of 46 construction-related corporations. The second group, associate members, is made up of 16 companies possessing expertise in materials and/or machinery. Three companies with expertise in design, research and surveying fall into a third category, special members. A list of these members by class is given in Table 3.1. The largest group represents the construction sector.
An organizational flow chart is shown in Fig. 3.7. Overall planning and operation of club activities is conducted by the Board of Governors. The Technical Committee is entrusted with research and data preparation. Special study groups are formed as appropriate on an ad-hoc basis. The organization has seven materials subcommittees, one for each of the major forms of reinforcement (by company) under consideration in Japan. They are:
Under the aegis of the Advanced Composites Cable Club over 100 projects have been conducted in Japan. The percentage of projects in different application areas is shown in Fig. 3.8. The geographic location of some of the ACC Club projects is shown in Fig. 3.9. A number of projects have been undertaken using a mix of competing products as a means of showcasing general product applicability. One example of such collaboration through the ACC is the use of Leadline, CFCC and Arapree elements on the Birdie Bridge. A significant number of projects have also been completed outside the ACC Club by individual members. Representative product types from each group are shown in Fig. 3.10.
Abe Kogyosho Co., Ltd.
A-M Engineering Co., Ltd.
Oriental Construction Co., Ltd.
Kawada Construction Co., Ltd.
Kinki Concrete Industries Co., Ltd.
Kumagai Gumi Co., Ltd.
Konoike Construction Co., Ltd.
Kowa Concrete Co., Ltd.
Penta-Ocean Construction Co., Ltd.
Joban Kosan Co., Ltd.
Showa Concrete Industry Co., Ltd.
Sumitomo Construction Co., Ltd.
The Zenitaka Corp.
Takenaka Civil Engineering & Construction
Tokyu Construction Co., Ltd.
Toyo Construction Co., Ltd.
DPS Bridge Works Co., Ltd.
Nishimatsu Construction Co., Ltd.
Nippon Koatsu Concrete Co., Ltd.
Nippon Kogen Concrete Co., Ltd.
Nippon Concrete Industries Co., Ltd.
Nihon Samicon Co.
Nippon P.S. Co., Ltd.
Nippon Hume Corp.
Nippon Pressed Concrete Co., Ltd.
PC Bridge Co., Ltd.
Fuji P.S. Corp.
Fudo Building Research Co., Ltd.
Fudo Construction Co., Ltd.
Maeta Concrete Industry, Ltd.
Mitsui Construction Co., Ltd.
Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co., Ltd.
Wakachiku Construction Co., Ltd.
Shinko Wire Co., Ltd.
Nippon Steel Chemical Co., Ltd.
Nippon Steel Corp.
Suzuki Metal Industry Co., Ltd.
Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd.
Tokyo Rope Mfg. Co., Ltd.
Toho Rayon Co., Ltd.
Toray Industries, Inc.
Nitto Denko Corp.
Nippon Aramid Co., Ltd.
Hatano Co., Ltd.
Mitsubishi Kasei Corp.
Kaihatsu Consultant Co., Ltd.
Japan Engineering Consultants
Japan Bridge & Structure Institute, Inc.
Fig. 3.7. Organizational chart for the ACC.
Fig. 3.8. Distribution of ACC Club projects.
Fig. 3.9. Location of ACC projects in Japan.
CFCC - Carbon Fiber Composite Cable
Arapree - Aramid Prestressing Element
FiBRA Aramid Tensioning Material
NEFMAC -New Fiber Composite Material for Reinforcing Concrete
Technora Reinforcing Elements
NACC Strand - Nippon Steel Advanced Carbon Fiber Composite Strand
Fig. 3.10. Representative product types.