This report is a revision and update of a chapter written by the author for an earlier JTEC report entitled Advanced Manufacturing Technology for Polymer Composite Structures in Japan (NTIS PB94-161403, http://itri.loyola.edu/polymers/). As in the previous report, this does not purport to be a comprehensive review of all activities related to the use of composites in civil infrastructure in Japan. Rather, it presents a snapshot of activities, with details where appropriate, in areas related to reinforcing elements, external reinforcement and seismic rehabilitation, and new directions. There have been a number of important developments and demonstration projects in this area in Japan, and it is important that the U.S. civil engineering community be aware of these activities and use the knowledge to further developments in this area. However, the reader should be aware of the social and philosophical differences that exist between Japan and the United States, some of which have significant effects on the different paths followed in this area in the two countries, and which even permeate to differences in approaches used in applications such as seismic retrofit, as outlined in this report.