LIST OF FIGURES

2.1 Process used for production of the Mitsui Mining fiber
2.2 Use of CFRC panels in the Kita Kyusho Prince Hotel

3.1 Use of Leadline elements for the tensioning of diagonals of a floating marine structure
3.2 Use of FiBRA elements as tendons in the pontoon bridge at Takahiko Three Country Club
3.3 Use of CFCC and Technora elements for pretensioning of girders at the Yamanashi Linear Car Test Track
3.4 Use of Technora tendons for prestresssing and post-tensioning of girders of bridges at the Sumitomo Oyama Works
3.5 Use of Leadline, CFCC and Arapree elements in a stress ribbon bridge at the Southern Yard Country Club (Birdie Bridge)
3.6 Use of Technora elements as ground anchors along the Meishin Expressway
3.7 Organizational chart for the ACC
3.8 Distribution of ACC Club projects
3.9 Location of ACC projects in Japan
3.10 Representative product types
3.11 Types of surface appearances on Leadline rods
3.12 Types of anchorages used with Leadline tendons/rods
3.13 Leadline rods ready for transportation
3.14 Schematic of the process used to manufacture CFCC elements
3.15 Appearance of CFCC elements
3.16 Schematic of terminal end of the "Resin Filling System."
3.17 Ends of the "Resin Filling" type
3.18 End for the die-cast wedge system
3.19 Schematic of the die-cast wedge system (M-DS-C)
3.20 Schematic of the multiple wedge system with die-casting
3.21 Multiple wedge system with die-casting (M-DM-C)
3.22 Schematic of the multiple resin filling wedge system (shown with three ends of 1 x 7 cable, each of 12.5 mm diameter)
3.23 Spool of CFCC
3.24 Types of NACC strand elements
3.25 Non-metallic anchor for the NACC strand
3.26 Anchor socket details for a multi-strand system
3.27 Geometry and detail of the hexagonal marine structure
3.28 Overall view of hexagonal structure showing tensioning diagonals
3.29 Completed structure floating on water
3.30 Overall views of Hisho Bridge
3.31 Free cantilever construction procedure
3.32 Details of geometry of the Hisho Bridge
3.33 Cut-away of anchorage used for internal post-tensioned cables
3.34 Cut-away of anchorage used for external post-tensioned cables
3.35 View of positioning of the four external post-tensioning cable systems
3.36 Geometrical details of jetty and position of NACC cables
3.37 CFCC-reinforced permanent formwork
3.38 Overall view of the completed Birdie Bridge
3.39 Details and geometry of the stress ribbon bridge
3.40 Placement of Arapree tendons
3.41 Placement of Leadline ground anchors
3.42 Chemical structure of aramid
3.43 Short-term tendon anchorage assembly
3.44 Anchorages for long-term use
3.45 Schematics of wedge type anchorages
3.46 Bonded anchorage
3.47 Types of Technora elements
3.48 Wedge type anchorages
3.49 Bonding type anchorages
3.50 Schematic cut-away of a bonding type anchorage
3.51 Overall view of the prestressed concrete berth
3.52 Details of girder geometry
3.53 Schematic of the culvert at the Nakagoh Drainage Works
3.54 Use of Technora for connection of precast linings
3.55 Precast units on the Kubota trunk line for irrigation
3.56 Schematic of the NESTEM process
3.57 Schematic layout of NESTEM structure
3.58 Use of NESTEM in road subgrades
3.59 Use of NESTEM in road widening
3.60 Use of NESTEM in embankment slopes and reinforced soil walls
3.61 Examples of NEFMAC grids
3.62 Schematic of the "Pin-Winding process used in the production of NEFMAC
3.63 Representative stress-strain response
3.64 Use of NEFMAC in the fabrication of a lightweight concrete curtain wall panel
3.65 Placement of NEFMAC reinforced curtain wall panels in a building frame
3.66 Use of NEFMAC as a reinforcement in the foundation of the Earth Magnetism Observatory
3.67 Use of NEFMAC as secondary reinforcement in a concrete silo structure in a coastal region
3.68 Schematic of the Administration Block Building for the Polar Base Facility
3.69 Use of NEFMAC in the foundation base
3.70 Use of NEFMAC 3D forms in the column
3.71 Use of NEFMAC grid as wall reinforcement
3.72 Use of NEFMAC as reinforcement in the floor
3.73 Schematic showing geometry of the pontoon
3.74 View of a single pontoon fabricated using NEFMAC grids as reinforcement
3.75 Overall view of the floating jetty
3.76 NEFMAC grid for tunnel lining reinforcement
3.77 Use of NEFMAC as lining reinforcement in an underground storage facility
3.78 Use of NEFMAC as lining reinforcement in the pilot tunnel (note the irregular face of rock)
3.79 Schematic of cross-sectional configuration
3.80 Use of NEFMAC in the repair/retrofit of a railway tunnel
3.81 Use of NEFMAC as reinforcement for the lining of tunnel walls in a hydroelectric plant
3.82 Use of NEFMAC as reinforcement in the floor of a tunnel used for transport of water
3.83 Placement of a prefabricated tunnel liner panel
3.84 Use of NEFMAC at joints between panels
3.85 Completed lining
3.86 Application of NEFMAC for reinforcing the downstream slope of a dam
3.87 Application on a slope
3.88 Placement of shotcrete covering on NEFMAC used for slope reinforcement
3.89 Use of grid as reinforcement for the wall of an excavated storage tank
3.90 Placement of 3D grid reinforcement cages on a slope
3.91 Partially completed slope protection system using NEFMAC reinforced concrete
3.92 Completed slope protection system
3.93 NEFMAC grid attached to the bottom of the exposed beam
3.94 Rehabilitation of the Niiborigawa Bridge
3.95 Schematic of the reinforcing scheme for shaft walls
3.96 Lifting of a multi-element wall section
3.97 Placement of NEFMAC "wall."
3.98 Placement of NEFMAC in shaft walls
3.99 Reinforcement detail near head of tunnel showing double layers
3.100"Stirrup" and "Plinth" connectors
3.101 Leadline type anchor system
3.102 CFCC type anchor system
3.103 Details of an aramid ground anchor system
3.104 Jacking of Technora ground anchors
3.105 Components of a "Leadline" ground anchor system (all dimensions in mm)
3.106 Flowchart of the installation process
3.107 Representative cross-section of slope
3.108 Meishin Expressway site showing composite pressure plates used with Technora ground anchors
3.109 Slope along the Kosedo section of the National Highway stabilized through the use of Technora aramid ground anchors
3.110 Site with CFCC ground anchors
3.111 Representative section showing details of placement of the CFCC ground anchor
3.112 Schematic showing placement of Leadline ground anchors in the Birdie stress ribbon bridge
3.113 Soil improvement methods for shield initiation
3.114 Stages in the positioning of a NOMST section
3.115 Insertion of a NOMST panel into a shaft
3.116 Details of a NOMST section
3.117 Schematic showing shield and NOMST
3.118 View of initiation socket and shield

4.1 Use of fabric/sheet material on columns
4.2 Use of fabric/sheet material in buildings
4.3 Use of fabric/sheet material for the strengthening of bridge deck soffits
4.4 Use of fabric/sheet material on retaining walls
4.5 Use of fabric/sheet material on tunnel lining
4.6 Grinding of concrete surface in preparation
4.7 Application of primer on the prepared concrete substrate
4.8 Placement of fabric/sheet material (fibers aligned vertically in this case)
4.9 Application of resin top coat (on top of the final layer of fabric/sheet material)
4.10 Carbon fiber based sheet/fabric forms used for external reinforcement of concrete
4.11 Overall structure of the CFRRA
4.12 Estimates of annual consumption of carbon fiber sheet materials for external reinforcement
4.13 Schematic of the "winding" process for column retrofit
4.14 Steps in the "sheet" process for column retrofit
4.15 Use of aramid-based systems for column retrofit
4.16 Use of Replark to retrofit cracked "Shinkansen" piers
4.17 Use of Replark to strengthen piers to facilitate widening of the expressway
4.18 Overall view of the retrofitted pier
4.19 Close-up of a retrofitted section showing the placement of the carbon fiber tow sheet
4.20 Application of FORCA carbon tow sheet in the capital region of a column of the Tsushima Viaduct in Aichi Prefecture
4.21 Application of FORCA carbon tow sheet on the surfaces of a column of the Tsushima Viaduct in Aichi Prefecture
4.22 Application of longitudinally aligned tow sheet to repair a cracked deck soffit at the Koyahara Viaduct
4.23 Yumura Bridge in Hyogo Prefecture strengthened by the application Replark
4.24 Close-up of resin overcoat ("topcoat") application for sheets in the transverse direction
4.25 Application of FORCA FTS-CF-300 tow sheet to the overhang of Hata Bridge
4.26 Application of Replark for the strengthening of a section of the road deck on the Hanshin Expressway
4.27 Schematic of the lattice pattern arising from the Sho-Bond method of application
4.28 Schematic of geometry of retrofit on the Hinobashi Bridge
4.29 Seismic strengthening of internal columns of a building in Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo
4.30 Seismic retrofit of edges of an internal column using Replark
4.31 Repair of cracked apartment floorboards with Replark
4.32 Retrofit of spalled/deteriorated columns using Replark
4.33 Seismic retrofitting of columns and walls in a pinball parlor in Yokohama using FORCA tow sheet
4.34 Repair of a cracked slab using Replark without shifting utilities
4.35 Seismic retrofit of columns in a parking lot using FORCA tow sheet
4.36 Seismic strengthening of external rectangular columns using FORCA tow sheet
4.37 Shear strengthening of columns using a combination of vertically oriented Replark and circumferentially oriented tow
4.38 Application of resin on FORCA tow sheet applied to a tunnel lining
4.39 Use of an overhead lift for retrofit without significant traffic disruption
4.40 Application of sheet material in the transverse direction along the arch in the Daiichi Yamaki Railway Tunnel
4.41 Application of a second layer of reinforcement perpendicular to the first in the Daiichi Yamaki Railway Tunnel
4.42 Detailed schematic of cross-section and performance level estimates of the Nikkureyama Tunnel
4.43 Cross-sectional details of the Ningyotoge Tunnel
4.44 Cross-sectional details for retrofit of a railway tunnel necessitated by construction of a road on top of it
4.45 General execution procedure
4.46 Details of the winding machine and procedure
4.47 Application of Replark onto a rectangular chimney
4.48 Overall view of retrofit of the chimney at Tonen's Wakayama Refinery
4.49 Detail showing placement of the tow sheet in the circumferential direction
4.50 Cross-sectional details
4.51 Repair of the Sacred Arch in Nakamura Park in Nagoya
4.52 Use of Replark sheet for the repair of a railway retaining wall in Sakai, Osaka
4.53 Repair of the inside walls of a box culvert
4.54 Use of FORCA FTS-C-200 carbon and FTS-GE-300 tow sheet for the repair of electric poles
4.55 Use of Replark for repair of a quay in Tokyo Bay
4.56 Schematic details of repair of concrete block balustrade using FORCA glass tow sheet

5.1 Sumitomo Construction Co., Ltd. is working on construction techniques for structures that are faster to build and of improved quality
5.2 Stress-ribbon bridges are thin, lightweight structures with high aesthetic appeal that may be a perfect application for lightweight, high strength, and high stiffness composite cables.
5.3 A rendition of the three-dimensional "City in the Air" concept being studied by Shimizu


Published: April 1999; WTEC Hyper-Librarian