In summary, Japanese foundries face many of the same problems as American foundries in the area of recruiting foundry workers and engineers. However, they emphasize training and maintaining the skills of their workers in an effort to retain those workers, much more than is the case at typical U.S. foundries.

Workplace safety and health regulations are not as demanding in Japan as in the United States. However, environmental consciousness is high.

Finally, the high cost of energy in Japan has forced an emphasis on energy conservation. However, few innovative energy saving foundry processing techniques were noted that would indicate any significant Japanese lead over the United States in this area.

Published: March 1997; WTEC Hyper-Librarian