The general opinion is that in the areas of special sand casting techniques, computer simulation of solidification, and the general level of metalcasting research activity in universities, Japan lags behind the United States and Europe. One important exception should be mentioned: the Japanese are clearly very interested in the problem of thin section ferrous castings (they have completed the conversion from ferrous castings to aluminum in their automobiles and must get weight savings out of ferrous materials). The repeated emphasis we saw in this area indicates that developments may be expected here.
The United States and Europe appear to be approximately equal in their modeling capabilities. However, European modelers also appear to have a higher interest than U.S. modelers in the area of casting distortion and residual stresses.