In calendar year 1993, JTEC/WTEC sent five delegations (totalling 33 panelists and 11 observers) on tours of overseas laboratories, completed five final reports, issued five full draft reports, conducted five workshops and seven smaller meetings, and initiated four new studies. JTEC/WTEC also prepared three summaries of the state-of-the-art of U.S. technology in the course of its ongoing studies, three books of draft site reports distributed for review to hosts and panelists, and three stand-alone executive summaries based on JTEC/WTEC final reports. Including draft reports, workshop viewgraph books, etc., the JTEC/WTEC staff prepared over 4,500 pages of manuscript in 1993 and the first six weeks of 1994, 1,100 of which were in final reports. The staff mailed out or otherwise disseminated a total of over 1.5 million pages in copies of these draft and final reports.
In addition, the JTEC/WTEC program has put renewed emphasis on widening the dissemination of study results, employing large commercial mailing lists, regular press releases, and paid advertising for the first time. JTEC/WTEC mailed over 28,000 workshop invitations in 1993. Participation by U.S. manufacturing companies in JTEC and WTEC workshops in 1993 reached an all time high. JTEC/WTEC enjoyed greater coverage in the technical and general press in 1993 than in the previous nine years combined. All of these developments are discussed in further detail below.
JTEC/WTEC sent two delegations to Japan in 1993 plus three to Europe and the former Soviet Union.
The WTEC Panel on Research Submersibles and Undersea Technologies visited Finland, France, Russia, Ukraine, and the United Kingdom in May of 1993, stopping to see 39 facilities in those countries. This panel was sponsored by NSF and ARPA, with additional participation from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The panel saw many research submersibles that were previously unknown in the West. In Ukraine, the panel saw Mach 1 ocean speed research underway at the Kiev Institute for Hydrodynamics.
The Civil Engineering Research Foundation (CERF) organized a Task Force on Constructed Civil Infrastructure Systems R&D in early 1993. WTEC commissioned a panel of U.S. civil engineering technology experts to join CERF's Task Force during its June 1993 trip in order to assess the status of European constructed civil infrastructure technologies. Among the Task Force's more interesting observations was a new form of concrete under development in France that can grow its own fiber reinforcement as a result of a delayed chemical reaction.
In September of 1993, JTEC's Panel on Micro-electro-mechanical Systems (MEMS) visited Japan to look at progress there in the development of millimeter- to micron-scale, batch-fabricated electro-mechanical devices and their applications. This study is sponsored by NSF, ARPA, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and the Department of Commerce. The MEMS panel found that the highly publicized MITI national research program in micromachines is focussed primarily on non-lithographic approaches to micro-machine fabrication. However, the MITI program is dwarfed by other Japanese MEMS research, primarily in industry, that closely parallels U.S. efforts in lithography-based approaches. The U.S. probably retains a lead in lithographic approaches, but the panel saw a number of innovative Japanese programs in the non-lithographic area.
The MEMS panel was followed closely by the JTEC Panel on Electronic Packaging sponsored by NSF, ARPA, NASA, and the Dept. of Commerce, which visited 12 major Japanese electronics manufacturers in early October in a search for improved understanding of Japan's overwhelming success in the global marketplace for ultra-compact and low-cost consumer electronics. That panel found that, though the U.S. is close to or equal to Japan in packaging technology, Japan is far ahead in manufacturing process development and refinement, and in market-pull product and manufacturing technology innovation.
Finally, the WTEC Panel on Advanced Display Technologies visited Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine in late October to assess opportunities for collaboration between the United States and the countries of the former Soviet Union in advanced display technologies. This effort was sponsored by NSF and ARPA. The panel found many intriguing display technologies under development in these three countries, among which is an electron beam pumped laser projection display (the "quantoscope") that is claimed to have over 3,000 lumen white light brightness at resolutions that easily exceed 2500 lines.
Table 1 shows the JTEC/WTEC foreign trips for 1993. Altogether, 43 JTEC/WTEC panelists and observers visited 188 sites in 11 countries.
JTEC/WTEC Foreign Trips in 1993
1993 was a banner year for JTEC/WTEC with respect to workshop attendance. Our first workshop of the year, the NASA/NSF Conference on Satellite Communications in Europe, Russia, and Japan, set a JTEC/WTEC record for attendance (over 200). This was due in part to advertisements placed by JTEC/WTEC in five relevant technical journals. Perhaps more significantly, this was also the first major effort by JTEC/WTEC to use large commercially available mailing lists for workshop invitations.
Table 2 shows the number of invitations mailed and attendance at each of the JTEC/WTEC workshops held in 1993 and early 1994.
Thus, JTEC/WTEC has mailed 2,500 or more invitations for each of its workshops since the Satellite Communications Conference, held in February 1993. This adds up to over 28,000 invitations mailed for all workshops in this period, not including invitations distributed via electronic mail and fax. This is in contrast to earlier years, when invitation lists for workshops typically ran in the hundreds. Attendance at JTEC/WTEC workshops in 1993 averaged just over 140, and consistently exceeded 100, compared to an average of 50 to 75 in earlier years.
Invitations and Attendance at JTEC/WTEC Workshops in 1993/94
Press coverage also increased significantly for the 1993 JTEC/WTEC workshops compared to previous years. Every 1993 workshop received mention in the general or technical press. Participation in our workshops by representatives of U.S. industry was consistently high in 1993, averaging over 50% of total attendance in the most recent two workshops. In two comparable 1991 JTEC workshops, an average of only about 20% of participants hailed from U.S. manufacturing companies.
We have also made efforts to improve workshop presentations and to make the workshop itself more pleasant for the audience. Beginning with the CERF workshop in September of 1993, all JTEC/WTEC workshops have included color presentation graphics. JTEC/WTEC workshops have also had several changes of venue in the past year, as we tried several different facilities in Washington, DC, then moved our workshops to the vicinity of NSF's new offices in Arlington, VA.
Two of the 1993 workshops covered technologies in the newly independent countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) -- concentrating mostly on the Russian Federation, Ukraine, and Belarus. These took a different approach from previous JTEC and WTEC workshops. Rather than comparing the quality of FSU R&D with that in the West, both the research submersibles and the advanced display technology workshops instead focussed on identifying interesting new technologies and centers of excellence in the FSU. To regular JTEC/WTEC workshop attendees, the most noticeable difference was probably the absence of the traditional "rating chart" summation of the panel's findings. The other notable difference was the active participation of a total of 11 eminent scientists from Russia, Ukraine and Belarus at these workshops (see Table 3). Especially in the case of the advance displays study, the workshop took on a new dimension as a way of fostering cooperation between U.S. companies and researchers and those of the former Soviet Union -- our guests from the FSU participated in more than 40 meetings with representatives of U.S. companies and universities during their week in the U.S.
FSU Guests Participating in 1993 WTEC Workshops
JTEC/WTEC also encourages panelists to make presentations at professional society meetings as a way of further disseminating study results to the research community. An average of two to three such presentations result from each JTEC or WTEC study. Additionally, panelists are often asked to make presentations about their JTEC/WTEC activities inside their own organizations. The JTEC/WTEC staff is aware of a total of 15 presentations made by panel members in calendar year 1993.
In just the first two months of 1994, JTEC and WTEC panelists made a total of 15 individual oral presentations at two major professional society conferences: the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the Fifteenth International Communications Satellite Systems Conference sponsored by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA).
The AIAA conference's plenary session was based on the findings of our Panel on Satellite Communications Systems and Technologies, and included presentations by three panelists and two of the panel's principal Japanese and European hosts. An additional session at the same conference, chaired by the panel's NASA sponsor, Ramon DePaula, included detailed reviews of Japanese, European, and Russian satellite communications technologies presented by eight other panelists.
The AAAS meeting's session on international technology benchmarking included presentations by George Gamota (Mitre Corporation and Senior Advisor to JTEC/WTEC) and by Mary Good, former member of the National Science Board and now Under Secretary of Commerce for Technology.
JTEC/WTEC also encourages panelists to publish articles in professional journals drawing on study results. The knowledge-based systems study completed by JTEC in 1993 was the subject of an article authored by that panel in the January 1994 issue of Communications of the ACM. A more in-depth treatment of the same report has been accepted for publication in the spring 1994 issue of AI Magazine. Prof. Karbhari, a member of the JTEC Panel on Advanced Manufacturing Technology for Polymer Composite Structures in Japan, authored an article based on that study for the August 1993 issue of Advanced Materials and Processes. Similarly, the co-chairs of the NASA/NSF Panel on Satellite Communications Systems and Technology, Burton Edelson and Joseph Pelton, published a two-article series in the March and April 1993 issues of Satellite Communicationsbased on their experiences as JTEC/WTEC panelists. Several members of the JTEC Panel on Bioprocess Engineering in Japan were co-authors of a National Academy of Sciences report issued in 1993 citing the 1992 JTEC study for its conclusions regarding Japan, and calling for a JTEC-style study of bioprocess engineering R&D in Europe. Similar publications arise out of virtually every JTEC and WTEC panel.
Written final reports are a primary medium for disseminating the results of JTEC and WTEC studies. Table 4 shows final reports published in 1993.
Thus, the JTEC/WTEC program generated over 1,100 pages of final report manuscript in 1993, distributing a total of 5,000 copies of these reports (or a total of almost 1.1 million pages distributed of all reports combined). The comparable figures for 1992 were 745 total pages of final report manuscript and 2,800 total copies
JTEC/WTEC Final Reports Published in 1993
* With the exception of one or two of the most recent reports, the number disseminated by JTEC/WTEC very nearly equals the number printed (current stocks are negligible). The dissemination figures shown here do not include additional copies that are produced and sold as xerox or microfiche by the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).
_ Numbers in this row are the sum of the columns above. Thus, "total pages" in this row is the sum of all "total pages" rows above it, whereas in all other rows, total pages is pages/copy multiplied by copies printed.
distributed (or 530,000 total pages). Even more importantly, the JTEC/WTEC program has shown steady progress since 1990 in increasing the number of final reports and executive summaries disseminated to the public (Figure 1). In addition to reports disseminated directly by JTEC/WTEC, tallied in Figure 1, the National Technical Information Service (NTIS) distributes several hundred more per year.
1 Figure 1. Total Final Reports Printed, Disseminated: 1990-93 (excluding program summaries, including stand-alone executive summaries)
The increased level of activity at JTEC/WTEC in 1993 is also evident with respect to draft reports, workshop viewgraphs, and other JTEC/WTEC publications not included in the final report category (see Table 5). These draft reports and other interim products play an important role in the program: sponsors get timely access to preliminary findings; hosts are offered the opportunity to correct any errors or misunderstandings before they are published; panelists and staff have a chance to improve the quality and accuracy of the final reports; and the program in general benefits from increased dissemination of study results.
The stand-alone executive summaries listed in Table 5 represent an important thrust in our efforts to widen the awareness of JTEC and WTEC studies in both the R&D and lay communities. JTEC/WTEC printed large numbers of stand-alone executive summaries for three of its 1993 final reports, mailing most of these to professional society mailing lists as a way of promoting interest in and sales of the full reports.
Total manuscript pages in these categories rose from 2,309 in 1992 to 3,480 in 1993 and the first two months of 1994. Total copies distributed of these non-final report manuscripts rose from just over 5,000 copies in 1992 to an estimated 6,855 copies in 1993. Some of these reports have limited distribution (e.g., draft site report books, which are distributed to members of the travelling party and staff while the site reports are under review by hosts). Preparing and distributing these specialized and draft reports accounts for a significant proportion of the total level of effort in the program. In 1993, over three pages of draft manuscripts were generated for each page of final report copy.
Targeted mailing lists have proven to be valuable for workshop invitation and executive summary mailings. Other avenues for expanding dissemination of JTEC and WTEC final reports are also under active consideration. These include commercial publication of final reports and electronic dissemination. For example, in February 1994, JTEC/WTEC signed a Letter of Agreement with MCC providing for all recent JTEC and WTEC reports to be made available to MCC members electronically. As of March 1994, information on the JTEC/WTEC program will be available to all users of Internet's World Wide Web system from a server at Stanford University. Other avenues for electronic distribution of JTEC/WTEC reports through the Internet are also under investigation.
Other JTEC/WTEC Publications in 1993/94
Table 6 lists reports and articles published in 1993 that cite JTEC and WTEC studies. Thanks in part to the timeliness of the satellite communications study, as well as the reputations of the panelists, in 1993 the JTEC/WTEC program enjoyed more press coverage (27 articles) than in the previous nine years combined. This is depicted graphically in Figure 2.
Figure 2. JTEC/WTEC Coverage in the General and Technical Press (excluding articles from Dept. of Commerce and Japan Information Access Project publications)
Of the 27 articles or reports published in 1993 citing JTEC and WTEC studies, 17 were about the satellite communications study. Though this study was of natural interest to the press, we made an effort to attract the press, holding press conferences for several workshops in which there was interest. In 1993, Rosalia Scalia of Loyola's Public Relations Department issued press releases promoting JTEC/WTEC conferences and reports. JTEC/WTEC events have also been listed by the National Science Foundation's Office of Legislative and Public Affairs in its regular press briefings.
The 27 articles listed in Table 6 do not include 18 other references to JTEC and WTEC studies published in special reports (e.g., GAO and OSTP reports) and in the specialized U.S.-Japan technology press (e.g., Japan Access Alert Bulletin, Japanese Technical Literature Bulletin, Japan Technical Affairs, etc.) during 1993. In fact, Japan Technical Affairs has published an edited rendition of every JTEC executive summary completed since 1992, and has thus become a highly valued archival publisher of all recent JTEC findings. The Department of Commerce's Japanese Technical Literature Bulletin has also faithfully covered JTEC workshops and reports, as has the newsletter of the Japan Information Access Project, Japan Access Alert. A full listing of all these citations is included in the Bibliography. Therefore the total number of citations in 1993, including all of the above, was 45.
1993 JTEC/WTEC Coverage in General and Technical Press